Section 45 of the constitution restricts the freedom of expression and the press even more. Secrecy: In Nigeria, secrecy inhibits the right of the people to know by preventing the press from accessing government sources and documents. This means that many news stories about politics or the police are never published because the subjects are not permitted to be photographed or recorded without their consent.
There are also limitations caused by laws that prohibit certain forms of journalism. For example, it is illegal to publish photographs of officers engaged in police work, which makes it difficult for newspapers to report on crimes being committed by policemen.
Another problem is that most journalists work under some form of threat or intimidation. Those who question authority face reprisals, including death threats, arrests, and imprisonment. There have been several cases in which journalists have been killed for their work.
Finally, there is censorship by omission. When government bodies such as parliaments or agencies fail to publish information that would otherwise be in the public interest, this is called "official secrecy".
In conclusion, there is no specific limit to press freedom in Nigeria, but it does suffer from problems related to secrecy, violence, and omission that can make working as a journalist difficult.
Section 39 (1) of the Federal Republic of Nigeria constitution protects freedom of expression in Nigeria. Despite this constitutional safeguard, the government has maintained control of the Nigerian media for much of its history, and in certain cases, even to this day.
Before 1999, there were no independent newspapers in Nigeria. The only newspapers at that time was the English-language Daily Times and the Spanish-language Vanguard. Both papers were owned by foreign companies. No newspaper had been founded since 1914 when the Nigerian Press Agency was established. In 1999, two daily newspapers were launched: the Daily Mail and the Daily Monitor. They are both privately owned.
In 2004, a new media law was passed by the federal government under which all media outlets in Nigeria are required to be licensed. However, this law has not been enforced yet because court challenges have prevented its implementation.
In conclusion, freedom of expression in Nigeria is not free but rather it is limited by many factors including lack of funding, low literacy rate, and government pressure. However, it is still better than most other countries where no freedom of expression is allowed.
Every Nigerian has the right to free speech and expression under the 1999 constitution. According to Section 39 (1), everyone has the right to free speech, including the right to hold opinions and receive and impart information without interference. This right may be restricted only if necessary for public safety or for the protection of others rights.
Section 40 states that no one shall be subjected to discrimination because of their opinion, with some exceptions. These include when someone is causing harm by use of threatening words against individuals or groups, or when there is a risk of widespread violence. In this case, the government can restrict freedom of speech to prevent further incidents of violence or threats.
Finally, under Section 36 (1) of the constitution, people have the right to assemble peacefully and communicate their views on important issues before parliament and other national institutions.
These sections of the constitution make it clear that freedom of speech is protected in Nigeria. However, like any other right, this freedom can be restricted if it violates another right or is necessary for the protection of others' rights. For example, the constitution allows the government to restrict freedom of speech if it is used to incite violence or threaten others' lives.
In addition, the government can also restrict this freedom if they believe that certain topics should not be discussed in public because they are considered sensitive or controversial.
According to the report, there are several elements in Nigeria that limit press freedom, including secrecy, legal pressure, direct censorship, and coercion, among others. The findings also show that Nigerian press freedom is a conundrum that exists only on paper, i.e., in the constitution, but not in practice.
One of the major factors limiting press freedom in Nigeria is secrecy. In fact, it is estimated that more than 50 percent of all news stories in Nigeria are based on leaked information. This high rate of leakage has two important consequences for press freedom. First, it creates an environment where journalists cannot perform their role as watchdogs over government power because they do not know what secrets people are leaking. Second, it means that many people outside the government sector are willing to share information about their activities with journalists, thus putting them at risk of being sued by or coerced into giving evidence against those people.
Another challenge facing press freedom in Nigeria is legal pressure. Several laws in Nigeria require media organizations to be registered with the government, which gives authorities the right to veto anything they deem unfit for public interest. Unregistered groups face closure if they fail to comply with regulations set by the regulatory body. This limitation puts most Nigerian newspapers under the protection of large companies that can afford to hire lawyers to fight off any attempt by the government to close them down.
A third factor limiting press freedom in Nigeria is direct censorship.