Executive Order 10988 is a United States presidential executive order issued by President John F. Kennedy on January 17, 1962, that recognizes the right of federal employees to collective bargaining. This executive order was a breakthrough for public sector workers, who were not protected under the 1935 Wagner Act. The order established an agency-wide system of collective bargaining for 5 million federal employees. It also included provisions for consultative processes and arbitration if negotiations failed to produce agreement.
Yes, according to the New York Times, he said: "I believe that it is my duty to speak out against practices which are harmful to workers' interests. Union security clauses have become part of most government contracts since they were introduced into union contracts during the late 1940's. Under these clauses, neither the government nor any contractor or subcontractor can be required to do business with either party unless they agree to be bound by the results of union elections conducted by the Labor Board."
He went on to say, "In my opinion, such provisions hinder rather than help unionization efforts because they prevent employers from negotiating terms and conditions of employment with individual contractors or subcontractors. I feel that it is important for managers to have this freedom."
These comments were made before Executive Order 10988 was issued and so they cannot be taken as evidence that Kennedy supported union security clauses. However, they do show that he was aware of its implications and found them objectionable.
Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802, establishing the Committee on Fair Employment Practices (FEPC) to examine and take action on legitimate accusations of discrimination in any defense company receiving federal contracts. Only after A. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802 did President Roosevelt sign it. This order was necessary because there was no existing authority to investigate or act upon complaints of employment discrimination.
In addition to investigating defense-related complaints, the FEPC also served as an advisory body to President Roosevelt. The committee met for the first time on February 1, 1935, and by late 1936 had published its findings on more than 1,000 cases. The majority of these cases involved allegations of discrimination in hiring, promotion, or payment. The FEPC concluded that discrimination had occurred in almost all of these cases, and many of its recommendations led directly to new policies by defense companies. For example, one study found that women were underrepresented in upper management positions at defense firms that received federal contracts. In response to this report, several companies voluntarily adopted affirmative action programs designed to improve their recruitment and placement of women.
As expected, given its role as an adviser to the president, the FEPC never had the power to enforce its decisions. But even so, its investigations and reports had a significant impact on defense industry practices. They helped bring attention to claims of discrimination within defense companies, and some of its recommendations led directly to changes in policy or procedure.
The Kennedys, in turn, degraded Johnson by refusing him a prominent role in the new government. President Kennedy filed away Johnson's very daring executive order granting the Vice President "general authority" of multiple government departments.
To address this issue, President John F. Kennedy established a domestic program to help the impoverished. Following assuming the presidency after Kennedy's assassination, Johnson opted to continue the endeavor after returning from the Dallas tragedy.
The Peace Corps was founded by President John F. Kennedy. President John F. Kennedy signed Executive Order #10924 on March 1, 1961, establishing the Peace Corps as a new department inside the Department of State. The order created the Peace Corps to provide "adequate and effective assistance" to other nations' peace programs.
In his address to the United Nations General Assembly on September 25, 1962, President Kennedy described the role of the Peace Corps: "For over a decade, Americans have joined with friends of all countries to help people build better lives through education, health, agriculture, business, science, and technology. In this task, there are many ways in which we can help. One way is through trade. Another is through direct service. And now, with your approval, I would like to mention another way - through volunteer service."
Kennedy went on to say that one million Americans were ready to go abroad as volunteers within two years if sufficient funds could be raised. The president asked Congress to approve $10 million per year for the agency's operations for the next fiscal year beginning July 1, 1963.
In addition to creating the Peace Corps, Kennedy also proposed a global military force made up of "volunteers" from around the world.
International Aid in the 1960s: The Birth of an Agency President John F. Kennedy passed the Foreign Assistance Act into law and established USAID by executive order in 1961. The act provided for a United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The agency was given the task of promoting peace, security, and human development around the world by working with other governments and organizations.
In its first year, USAID spent $20 million on programs across the globe. That amount had increased to $40 million by 1963. By 1969, the agency's budget was $150 million. One out of every seven dollars spent on international affairs was allocated to USAID at the time.
The agency has since grown in size and scope. In 2009, its budget was $14 billion. Of this amount, about 0.5 percent went toward humanitarian assistance. The rest was spent on developing countries around the world. USAID's mission is to help these countries develop economically while also reducing poverty and increasing health care access.
Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the agency is run by a director who is appointed by the president. The position is not meant to be a full-time job. Instead, the director is expected to travel to different parts of the world to see how USAID can best help with economic development projects.
The Wagner Act, the most important labor measure in American history, was signed by FDR. It recognized employees' freedom to form unions, mandated employers to bargain with union representatives, and strengthened the National Labor Relations Board's ability to settle conflicts. The act was named after its primary sponsor, Senator Robert F. Wagner of New York.
In addition to passing legislation that protected workers' rights, Roosevelt made sure there were always good jobs for everyone by building roads, schools, and hospitals. He also provided federal aid to the states so they could do the same. The result was a prosperous nation with many people who were not starving or homeless.
Today's labor movement is based on the Wagner Act, which provides support to workers as they try to organize factories and offices. The National Labor Relations Board, which enforces the law, can issue subpoenas, hold hearings, and make decisions about business practices based on how those practices affect employees at different companies or locations.
Roosevelt began this policy of helping workers organize their industries long before it became popular. In fact, he started it to protect the millions of Americans who needed protection from unfair employment practices.
He wanted labor to have a voice at the table when policies were being decided, so they could work with him instead of against him.