By warrant under his hand and seal, the President appoints the Governor of a State (Article 155). A person must be a citizen of India and over the age of 35 to be considered for nomination as Governor (Article 157). The Governor shall have the authority to give pardons, reprieves, and other relief (Article 161). He may also grant commissions to officers of the armed forces (Article 162).
The President can remove a Governor from office by issuing a proclamation stating that the Governor has been removed from office (Article 164). If the President does not issue such a proclamation within six months of receiving notice of the impeachment of the Governor, then the Governor will be restored to office.
All states have their own governments with legislative branches consisting of a Senate and House of Representatives. All states except Vermont have two senators per state elected by citizens of that state to serve three-year terms, with half of the seats up for election every two years. Vermont has one senator per district, with four districts and two senators up for election every two years. The District of Columbia has a representative in Congress, but it is not a state; therefore, it does not have any electoral votes. It is represented by a Senator who serves at the pleasure of the President and can be removed from office by him with no further action required by Congress.
In most states, the executive branch consists of a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) who is the head of the government agency responsible for executing laws and policies.
To be eligible for appointment as Governor, a person must be an Indian citizen and over the age of 35. (Article 157). The Governor may not be a member of the Legislature or Parliament, may not occupy a profit-making post, and is not entitled to emoluments or allowances. However, one who has served as Governor of a State for at least 90 days can be appointed President of India. The President can then appoint him/herself Governor of that State.
A person can be appointed Governor of more than one State. However, he/she cannot be appointed Chancellor of several universities at the same time.
The term of office of Governor is four years, but if the position becomes vacant before then, the President can make it temporary till the end of his/her successor's term.
A person can be appointed Governor after completion of five years of experience in government service or having been elected to public office for the first time. If the experience lies in both civil and military service, one year shall be added to the age limit.
Governors are selected by the President from among their colleagues in the Legislature or Parliament. The decision is based on recommendations made by parliamentary committees or bodies concerned with the administration of justice in their States. These include the Justice Committee and the Law Commission of India.
The Constitution does not specify any particular procedure for appointing or removing a Governor.
The Governor of a state is selected by the President for a five-year term and serves at the discretion of the President. Only Indian nationals above the age of 35 are eligible for appointment to this position. The Governor has executive authority over the state. They can be removed from office only by force of the Constitution or impeachment by the Legislature.
Governors are elected during state assembly elections. The Governor must be an elected official; they cannot be chosen by the president directly. However, since 1999, all Governors have been members of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) or its predecessor organization, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), meaning that they are not independent but instead act as agents of the federal government. Before this arrangement, most governors were former senior officials of the Union government or others who could be trusted to carry out BJP policies.
In addition to their role as head of state, some countries also have a governor general, who is the representative of the monarch on earth. In such cases, the governor general is usually either the leader of the majority party in the Parliament or someone else who is highly regarded by them. For example, the governor general of Canada is the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons who can be a prime minister or another member of the cabinet.
The president appoints governors and lieutenant governors for five-year terms. The only exception is if the officeholder is married to, or has an appointment from a state executive council, in which case he or she can stay in office for up to nine years.
The governor can sign bills into law, but cannot veto statutes. A bill cannot be enacted into law without being signed by the governor. If the governor does not act on a bill within 10 days of its introduction, then it becomes law by default. The only way for the governor to avoid this outcome is to send the bill back to the legislature with suggestions for changes. If the legislature fails to act upon these changes, then the original bill becomes law.
When a governor first takes office, his or her selection is often seen as important for sending a message about the direction of the state. As such, governors are typically chosen from different parts of the country and sometimes from opposite sides of political battles. This was true in California when Ronald Reagan selected George Deukmejian after Edward I. Edwards resigned to become secretary of defense under President Jimmy Carter. In Illinois, Jim Thompson was elected governor after William O'Neill was removed from office following allegations of corruption.
To be governor, a person must be at least 30 years old and a West Virginia resident for at least five years at the time of inauguration. The president-elect can make any other requirement he or she deems necessary. Governors are typically elected on a partisan basis for a four-year term, but some states allow their governors to run for a second consecutive term. If the governor dies in office or is otherwise removed from office through impeachment or resignation, then the president-elect will appoint a new governor. The only other way out is if voters remove them from office through a recall election.
All 50 states have an executive branch, but they work differently from state to state. In most states, the governor has certain powers such as the power to make appointments or a role in setting policy, but they do not replace the legislature in creating laws. Instead, the job consists mainly of executing what the legislature creates or approves. A few states give the governor more power by allowing them to veto legislation or even part of legislation before it becomes law.
In addition to being a state leader, governors can also have national prominence. Some go directly from the governor's office to another job outside of politics, while others seek election to Congress or another public office. Currently, 11 states have women as their chief executives.