The earthquake of 1692 caused the majority of the city to descend below sea level. Approximately 2,000 people perished as a consequence of the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, while another 3,000 died in the days that followed as a result of injuries and sickness. The total number of deaths due to this event may have reached as high as 10,000.
The great earthquake and tsunami of 1692 were among the most devastating natural disasters in history. They remain part of Japanese folklore today.
In modern times too, earthquakes have had a major impact on human life. Aftershocks continue to cause damage even years after an initial shock. In 1995, over 23,000 people lost their lives when an earthquake of 9.0 on the Richter scale hit Turkey. In 2004, another large earthquake occurred in Southeast Asia killing over 70,000 people.
Even though earthquakes are often deadly they can also have beneficial effects. For example, scientists believe that the earthquake that struck Chile in 1960 helped release some of the pressure on the Earth's crust so that it could eventually rebound after being depressed by mining activity. This rebound is called "geosynching" or "geothermal expansion". Another benefit might be that the earthquake removed some of the rock that would otherwise have been dropped onto other parts of the planet where it would have caused damage.
The tsunamis were directly responsible for 124 of the 139 deaths related to this disaster. Tsunami waves overwhelmed towns like Whittier, Alaska, before the earthquake had even receded.
The earthquake itself killed 57 people. It was a magnitude 9 event on the Richter scale. The area affected by the earthquake was about the size of Maryland or Delaware.
In addition to the deaths, the Great Alaska Earthquake caused $300 million in damage. It is considered one of the most deadly earthquakes in history.
This disaster happened on March 27, 1964. At 2:39 PMAlaska Standard Time, a large portion of the island on which Sitka, Alaska, is located collapsed into the Sitkan Harbor. This caused a wave more than 100 feet high that destroyed much of the town and spread fear throughout all of Alaska.
It took several hours after the initial quake for news reports to come out detailing the deaths and destruction from various locations across Alaska.
Even though this disaster was nearly 10 years ago, some areas of Alaska are still recovering because of permanent changes made by the tsunami. Currently, there are 37 people listed as missing after the crash of the aircraft carrier USS Forrestal near Amchitka Island.
10,000 individuals The explosive eruption and tsunamis triggered by enormous pyroclastic flows entering the sea killed around 10,000 people. Agricultural losses due to the heavy ash deposits caused starvation and illness, killing an additional 82,000 people. The total death toll from both events was about 22,000 people.
In addition, hundreds of people were made homeless when their villages were destroyed by the explosions. The majority of the deaths occurred on the island of Kauai but dozens died on Oahu as well.
The eruption is believed to have started near the end of Laki's 13th-century volcanic winter, when temperatures in the atmosphere below 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit) caused snow to melt rapidly. This created pools of water that eventually led to the formation of Laki Crater on Kauai. The resulting crater is now a popular hiking spot that is accessible to people in good health. However, it should be noted that the area around the rim is very steep and can be dangerous for those not used to rugged terrain.
Laki's destruction was part of a series of volcanoes' eruptions in the early 1800s that resulted in the deaths of more than 30,000 people. It was the most deadly event in Hawaii history up until that time.
Tsunamis are among the most destructive natural catastrophes. Tsunamis have claimed over 420,000 lives and caused billions of dollars in damage to coastal infrastructure and environments since 1850. The majority of these deaths were caused by local tsunamis, which occur around once a year somewhere in the world. However, large scale tsunami events such as the one that killed over 150,000 people in 1923 or the 119 victims recorded in Indonesia in 2009 have also been reported.
In addition to human casualties, tsunamis have caused economic losses estimated at more than $100 billion due to property damage and lost tourism revenue.
Local tsunamis are usually less severe than offshore megatsunamis. However, they can be just as deadly because their impact depends on how close they come to shore. Local tsunamis can cause severe flooding, mudslides, and ground movement that result in loss of life and property damage.
Megatsunamis are larger than 30 feet and occur only occasionally. They are generated away from coastlines by volcanic activity, earthquakes, or meteor strikes and travel at speeds up to 300 miles per hour. Megatsunamis can cause death and destruction over very large distances because their energy is not dissipated until after they hit land. Damage from megatsunamis can reach hundreds of miles inland and can affect water bodies for many miles around the source region.