The objective and history of the United States International Trade Commission is an independent, quasi-judicial government organization with wide investigation responsibilities in trade affairs. The ITC's role is to provide information on imports and exports of goods and services between countries. It makes recommendations on actions the U.S. government can take to improve trade practices. The ITC is composed of five members who are appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. A sixth member serves as Chairman. Members serve six-year terms and may not hold other office or employment under the United States or any state or political subdivision thereof.
The ITC is part of the Department of Commerce but has separate offices and staff from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, which measures national income and output. The ITC also has its own investigative team that handles inquiries and cases referred to it by the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection within the Department of Homeland Security.
The ITC was created in 1962 by Congress in response to concerns about the quality of information being collected by the Federal Government on international trade. Before this time, there was no federal agency responsible for monitoring imports and exports other than the Bureau of Foreign Commerce which was abolished in 1966.
Washington, D.C. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government whose primary mission is to enforce civil (non-criminal) antitrust law in the United States and to promote consumer protection. The FTC has three main divisions: Policy Planning, which develops policies for the commission; Law Enforcement, which investigates complaints about businesses that may be violating the law; and Research, which studies topics related to consumer protection and publishes its findings.
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The United States Court of International Trade, created under Article III of the Constitution, has countrywide jurisdiction over civil cases arising from United States customs and international trade regulations. The court was established by Congress to provide a single forum for resolving disputes concerning import duties and other charges levied by the federal government and to give effect to United States trade agreements.
The court is located on the first floor of the Department of Justice building at 1401 M Street NW in Washington, DC. It can hear cases either summarily, upon consent of the parties, or after conducting a trial. Summary judgment motions are used by plaintiffs to request that the court rule on issues of law before them without going through a full trial. Defendants can use summary judgment motions to request that the court rule in their favor before continuing with the case. These motions are governed by Rule 56 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Trials are formal proceedings before the court during which both plaintiff and defendant present evidence in support of their positions. Trial judges then make decisions as to what evidence is most relevant to their cases and how they will decide those matters coming before the court. Trials are conducted by a jury when authorized by statute, or when the defendant agrees to have a jury determine its liability. A judge alone can decide non-jury cases such as those involving simple claims of breach of contract or tort.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is a government body founded in 1914 to protect consumers against anticompetitive, misleading, or unfair commercial activities. The FTC enforces consumer protection and antitrust laws, as well as working to advocate consumer interests and offer educational initiatives. The FTC is an independent agency within the U.S. Department of Commerce.
In addition to its role enforcing federal law, the FTC acts as a national policy maker by developing guidelines for industry and publishing statistics on various topics related to consumer affairs.
All members of the United States Congress are required by law to file annual financial disclosures with the Clerk of the House of Representatives and the Secretary of the Senate. These filings include information about the member's finances, including their income, assets, liabilities, and other matters relevant to determining whether they have any conflicts of interest. Members are also required to disclose certain transactions involving $10,000 or more with their congressional office. If a member fails to do so, then the Federal Election Commission can bring enforcement actions against them.
The FTC has five commissioners who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Commissioners serve eight-year terms and may not be removed from office except for cause. An additional member is appointed to represent the views of children regarding consumer issues. This position is called the "Chairman" of the FTC and is selected by the President with consent of the Senate.
The United States Court of International Trade is a federal court established under Article III of the Constitution. The Customs Court Act of 1980 established the United States Court of International Trade in place of the old United States Customs Court. The judges are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. They also have the power to sit as trial judges for the district courts.
In addition to its role as a court of appeals, the United States Court of International Trade has exclusive jurisdiction over certain cases involving imports from Canada and Mexico. The court also has jurisdiction over certain imported products that impact U.S. commerce (such as steel), but not agriculture or defense.
Imports from countries other than Canada or Mexico can be brought before either of the other federal courts created under Article I of the Constitution: the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals or the District Courts. The customs duties involved with these imports are handled by the Department of Treasury's Bureau of Customs and Border Protection.
The United States Court of International Trade is located on the fourth floor of the James Madison Building at 900 G Street NW, Washington DC 20001-7070. The building is accessible from the Metro station named after it or from Rosslyn Metro station on the Blue and Orange lines.
Scott Mall wrote this. The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) was the United States' first independent regulatory body, established in 1887 by Congress with the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act. During its term, the members of the Commission were appointed by the President with the approval of the United States Senate.
Interstate trade Essentially, the majority of interstate commerce regulating authorities are located in the FCC (broadcasting) and the FTC (antitrust provisions). The various states have some jurisdiction to control areas of interstate trade as well. Interstate shipments may be prohibited under the terms of the states' police powers, and...