The executive arm of the federal government is established in Article Two of the United States Constitution, and it is responsible for carrying out and enforcing federal laws. Section 2 of Article Two establishes the powers of the presidency, stating that the president is the commander-in-chief of the military, among other things. This means that the president can make decisions about how to use the military as well as lead it in battle.
In addition to these responsibilities, the president can influence domestic policy by determining what laws he or she will sign into law or veto. The power to make appointments is an important aspect of any president's role in government, as they select officials who help implement policies and laws. Finally, the president can give speeches about issues before them.
Although the office of the president belongs to the executive branch, it is also one of the most powerful positions in the country. Because the president can affect national security matters, they often become a target for assassination attempts. In addition, because of their influence over government officials and employees, presidents are commonly targeted by bribery schemes and other forms of corruption.
Since the beginning of the United States, every president has been an American citizen who was elected by the people. However, only four men have held the office of president without being elected by a direct vote from the people: Andrew Johnson, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, and Bill Clinton.
The executive branch of the federal government is established in Article Two of the United States Constitution, and it is responsible for carrying out and enforcing federal legislation. The executive branch consists of the President, Vice President, Cabinet, and other United States government institutions.
In addition to these officers, the Constitution also allows for the election of Senators by the People. These are known as "elective offices" because they can be held by anyone who is elected by the people. Currently, all of the Presidents and most of the Vice Presidents have been elected by the People. Elected officials are referred to as "men and women of their word". This means that if they make a promise to the voters, they should keep it. If they don't, they aren't worth being voted into office.
The Constitution also contains a section called "Removal from Office". This section states that the President may be removed from office via impeachment. Impeachment is the only way to remove a president from office. The Senate must try the president for treason, bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors. If convicted, the president is removed from office.
Finally, the Constitution provides for the creation of various agencies and departments of the federal government. Some of these are listed in Article II and others are provided for in other articles of the Constitution.
This clause empowers the president to issue pardons. A pardon is a declaration by the president that an individual is not guilty of a crime. This removes all penalties for the act. It can also restore rights that were lost due to the offense.
In Federalist 65, Alexander Hamilton explained that the power of pardon is one of the most important aspects of the executive role. He wrote that the president could "grant reprieves and pardons, thereby reducing alleged offenders to our own level of dignity instead of that of royalty."
This section of the order was necessary because at the time the Constitution was written, there was no specific provision for the power of pardon. However, it was generally understood that the president needed this authority to be able to protect the nation's interests from people within government itself.
The first presidential pardon was issued in 1789 by George Washington after he took office as president. The case involved Captain Jonathan Frase, who had been convicted of treason for his part in the Whiskey Rebellion. Although the Constitution did not specifically mention the power of pardon, Washington used his executive authority to nullify the judgment against Frase.
The executive branch is established by Article II of our Constitution. The president wields enormous influence. The president has the authority to veto legislation approved by Congress, issue executive orders, grant pardons, and negotiate and sign treaties on our behalf. The president is the supreme commander of our armed forces. The president can also exert influence through his appointment power and his ability to persuade members of Congress to support or oppose candidates for office.
Key officials in the executive branch include the president himself, who runs on a ticket with either a vice president or senator as number two; the secretary of state, who is the chief diplomat for America and oversees international affairs; the secretary of defense, who is responsible for military strategy and policy; and the attorney general, who directs the justice department and represents the United States in litigation.
Another important position is that of the director of the national intelligence (DNI). This is a presidential appointee who serves at the pleasure of the president. They are the senior intelligence officer within the government. They do not have a vote on any matter before the Congress but they do serve as an advisor to the president and other members of the administration about issues related to intelligence. There is no official term limit for this position.
In addition to these five offices, there are others that serve at the will of the president. These include: ambassadors to foreign countries, federal judges, and members of the intelligence community.
Article II, Section 1 establishes the president's authority over the executive branch of government. This section serves as the basis for presidential appointments and removals.
It has been called a "vesting clause" because it grants the president power even before he is inaugurated. If Congress cannot act or refuses to act, then the president can make appointments or remove individuals from office.
Appointments and removals are among the most powerful tools a president can use with respect to officials in the executive branch. Because judges can only be removed for cause, presidents often try to influence them by appointing allies or others who will decide cases accordingly.
By giving the president the ability to remove officers of the federal government, including members of Congress, this section ensures that no person will be able to hold up business as usual. Without this power, presidents would not be able to make decisions about their departments or conduct foreign affairs without worrying about the effect on their jobs security.
This section has been used by every president since John Adams in order to fill vacancies in the executive branch. During times when there are more appointments than dismissals, it is known as a "appointment-only" presidency.