In 1877, Ohio passed a miscegenation ordinance, then in 1878, it passed a school segregation law. Public facility segregation was prohibited in 1884, while prior miscegenation and school segregation regulations were repealed in 1887. These laws were not enforced.
Segregation in public schools began after the Supreme Court's Plessy v. Ferguson decision in 1896. The court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites was legal under the 14th Amendment's guarantee of "equal protection under the law". In other words, if states provide equal facilities, they do not have to give them to black students or white students, but can treat them equally bad. Or better yet, they can provide better facilities for one group than the other!
This decision caused great controversy at the time and has since been widely criticized. Segregation continued into the 1950s, when the U.S. Supreme Court issued its ruling in Brown v. Board of Education. This case stated that segregation of black and white children in public schools violates the 14th Amendment's guarantee of "equal protection under the law".
The lawsuit that led up to this decision was brought by African-Americans who lived in Louisville, Kentucky. They argued that their children were being denied their right to an education because most of them had to attend segregated schools.
School segregation was also a serious concern in the North. Despite state laws prohibiting it, communities in the south of Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey enforced educational segregation. By state law, Indiana also compelled school segregation. In addition, schools across the Midwest were becoming increasingly segregated by class, gender, and ethnicity. Many states failed to enforce their anti-discrimination laws, so these school divisions remained highly segregated.
In the early 20th century, civil rights groups such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) focused on school desegregation. They believed that separating black students from white students prevented racial tensions between them from developing. However, many northern whites opposed school desegregation because they believed it would hurt their children's education by taking money away from public schools for private school vouchers or special programs for minority students.
During the 1950s and 1960s, several major cases involving school segregation came before the U.S. Supreme Court. The most important case was Brown v. Board of Education, which ruled that segregating students by race violated their constitutional rights. The court ordered the immediate integration of southern schools, but members of Congress passed legislation preventing federal funds from being used to integrate northern schools. As a result, only gradual improvements in northern school systems occurred over time.
State statutes against segregation were passed in 1874. The Illinois Civil Rights Act of 1885 was approved, prohibiting discrimination in public places and amenities such as hotels, rail routes, theaters, and restaurants. This act was the first civil rights law to include all citizens of the United States.
In 1896, an amendment to the state constitution provided for a uniform system of primary schools. This amendment resulted in the creation of many new school districts across Illinois that were predominantly white or predominantly black. The amendment also allowed towns with populations under 500 to opt out of having a school district created by it. These exemptions resulted in a large number of one-room schoolhouses being established throughout the state.
Segregation ended completely in Illinois in 1969 when the Supreme Court ruled in McCarthy v. Adams that students could not be excluded from public schools on the basis of race. Prior to this decision, many African Americans had moved to northern Illinois where they could get better jobs in the factories. This left mostly poor whites with no alternative but to go to black schools.
Illinois has a long history of providing educational opportunities to its citizens.
The United States formally eliminated public school segregation in 1954, when the United States Supreme Court determined in Brown v. Board of Education that it was unconstitutional. However, a new type of separation has evolved. Today, segregation occurs within the system - between rich and poor, white and black, educated and uneducated.
Segregation has many forms. One form is economic segregation, where children are allowed to attend schools but only if their parents can afford to pay for private tutors or other services that would cost money they cannot afford. Segregation by income also creates segregation by class, because families with less income have lower priority for admission to certain schools.
Another form is racial segregation, which results from decisions made by individuals, neighborhoods, and institutions to exclude people based on their race or ethnicity. This may occur with respect to housing, employment, and access to resources such as food, health care, and education. Racial segregation also may result from differences in the quality of education that communities provide.
Yet another form is religious segregation, which often follows patterns established by ethnic groups. This may occur where public schools are prohibited from offering students non-public educational options (such as private schools or home schooling) or where public schools maintain separate facilities for each religion they serve.
1954 Despite the fact that the landmark decision Brown v. Board of Education ruled public school segregation unlawful in 1954, schools in Yalobusha County's two biggest towns continued to practice it for an additional 16 years. The last black student was allowed to attend Mound Bayou High School in 1964.
1965 Black students were again permitted to attend white schools across the state. However, many white parents refused to send their children to school with blacks and created "segregation academies" - independent private schools - to avoid mixing race. These schools often had stricter admission standards than those required by law and used various methods to ensure that only white students qualified. Some resorted to making grades matter or using other tests to determine who would be allowed to go to school with whites.
Today, there are almost no racial divisions between students attending school in Yalobusha County. All students at every school in the county district are treated equally and racially mixed groups are common during school activities such as sports events. There are also no official restrictions on how far away from home a student can live in order to be included in school district boundaries. Thus, most kids here know everyone living around them even if they don't always associate with people of different races.
Segregation ended in Mississippi following the United States Supreme Court's ruling in Green v. New Kent County School Board which declared segregated schools unconstitutional.