What were Luther's four main points in his writing? (1) Justification based on faith. (2) The universal priesthood of all believers(3) The Bible's authority as God's Word. (4) The need for forgiveness of sins.
Luther's work had a profound influence on the European Reformation. His challenge to an ecclesiastical system that was corrupt and full of abuse led to the establishment of national churches outside of Rome. He also played a major role in making the Bible available in German. His translation of the New Testament into German became one of the most popular versions used by Christians in Germany before World War I.
Luther's 95 Theses challenged the sale of indulgences, which were certificates that allowed sinning Catholics to avoid punishment after they died. Indulgences were originally designed to encourage people to donate money to the Church, but they soon became a way for priests to make money. Although the Catholic Church has abandoned the practice of granting indulgences, Luther's criticism of this part of the church system remained influential within Christian theology.
In addition to being one of the most important influences on the European Reformation, Luther's ideas have had an impact on other movements around the world.
I've already tackled (1), and I'd want to tackle (2) today. The real-life Luther was a guy who was so sure of his own righteousness that everyone who disagreed with him was either uneducated, foolish, or wicked. He had little use for princes or priests, and he wanted Germany to get away from all foreign influence.
Luther's most famous statement is "Here I stand; I can do no other." This was not a humble confession, but a declaration of independence from his bishop and church authorities. He believed that God had called him to preach the Gospel free of any authority other than His own, and so he refused to recant his heretical views.
Having said that, it's important to remember that Luther lived at a time when there were no judges, juries, or lawyers - only princes and priests who used their power to abuse others. It's also worth mentioning that while Luther was critical of the sale of indulgences, he did approve of the ransom paid for his life. He saw himself as a valuable prize that needed to be paid off by drinking wine every Thursday in Lent. Finally, it's important to note that while Luther was willing to debate other scholars about his beliefs, he never debated the princely rulers of his time.
In conclusion, Luther was a man who had strong opinions and felt strongly about them.
Fundamentally, Luther was successful because his views were appealing to individuals of all social groups. His theology was seen as revolutionary in economic, social, and political dimensions, as well as intellectual and doctrinal grounds, when it reached maturity. Another factor that contributed to Luther's success was the relative weakness of the forces opposing him. The pope at the time was Adrian VI, who was only a teenager. He was unable to prevent the publication of Luther's 95 Theses or come up with his own response. Similarly, the German nobility was divided between those who wanted to be friends with Luther and those who wanted to kill him. They were not willing to fight each other to resolve this issue.
Luther's views on marriage and divorce were also very popular among the common people. Divorce had become popular among the upper classes, but not among the peasants who made up the majority of Luther's audience. His advice to marry for love and leave if you cannot agree on certain issues was simple and easy to understand. Finally, Luther's call for Christians to accept their differences of opinion and work out their disputes peacefully was an idea that appealed to both liberals and conservatives.
In conclusion, Luther's ideas were successful because they appealed to many different groups in society. His advice about marriage and divorce was useful since it allowed for peace between couples without breaking up marriages. His call for Christians to accept their differences of opinion and work out their disputes peacefully was something everyone can get behind.
His primary doctrines, that the Bible is the exclusive source of religious authority and that salvation is obtained via faith rather than works, influenced the heart of Protestantism. Despite his criticism of the Catholic Church, Luther separated himself from the radical successors who took up his banner. He was concerned to demonstrate that he was not a heretic and so agreed with many practices of the Roman Catholic Church.
Luther's views on marriage, divorce, and remarriage were controversial within the Catholic Church. Although he believed that Christians should obey God rather than men, his opinions on these matters were rejected by some leaders as being contrary to Scripture. In response, Luther wrote a series of essays on Christian marriage and family life called "On the Service of Wives."
He also discussed politics and society in early modern Europe. Luther encouraged princes to resist tyranny and urged people to accept their fate with humility. He also argued for the preservation of nature over man-made laws, stating that good government should strive to preserve the environment because doing so will help people lead virtuous lives.
Luther is known for launching the Protestant Reformation in 1517 with the publication of his 95 Theses. This act resulted in his excommunication by the Pope. Rather than submit to Rome, Luther founded his own church: Lutheran Christianity.
Luther's ideas continued to have an impact on theology and culture after his death.
Luther's beliefs on the priesthood of all Christians sparked social upheavals and revolts, most notably the Peasants' War (although this linkage was disavowed by Luther). Luther's notion that everyone should read the Bible resulted in the promotion of education and the expansion of literacy. His support for traditional values against changes brought about by Italian humanism helped preserve ancient culture and knowledge.
These are just some of the changes that can be attributed to Martin Luther. He is one of the most important figures in the history of Europe, and his ideas have had an impact on many aspects of life today.