To reduce gaps in living standards and better satisfy the needs of the majority of the world's peoples, all nations and peoples must work together to eradicate poverty as a fundamental condition for sustainable development. This goal is illustrated in two key documents adopted by the summit: the Declaration on Environment and Development and the Agenda 21 for Sustainable Development.
In addition to these two comprehensive documents, other major themes were addressed during the summit including climate change, global health, food security, energy policy, and financing for development.
The Rio Summit of 1992 was a landmark meeting that helped establish today's global agenda for sustainable development. The summit brought together leaders from around the world to address issues such as poverty, environment, health, human rights, and peace with a view to promoting social equity and lasting change. By focusing on cross-cutting issues rather than single topic areas, the summit showed that environmental concerns cannot be separated from economic or social development efforts. It also demonstrated that working through international organizations is one way for countries to achieve consensus on issues that may not be readily apparent or popular at home.
The Rio Summit of 1992 was held just over 20 years after its predecessor, the Rio Conference of 1972. At that earlier conference, governments had agreed on a set of goals for sustainable development, but no formal mechanism existed to implement those goals.
Peace, progress, and environmental conservation are inextricably linked and inseparable. States must address any environmental issues amicably and via appropriate procedures in conformity with the United Nations Charter. The main principles are: peace, progress, human rights, equality, the common good, sustainable development, and preservation of biodiversity.
The Rio Declaration was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 June 1992. It is one of the longest-running political processes in history. The final text was signed by 121 governments, representing over 90% of the world's population at that time. It has been widely regarded as one of the most successful international agreements to date.
As part of its commitment to peace, progress, and human rights, the Rio Declaration calls for free, prior, and informed consent from indigenous peoples before they can be subject to colonisation or exploitation. This provision is commonly referred to as "autonomy plus".
Indigenous people represent about 4% of the total global population but account for nearly 10% of the world's poor. Despite this, they have no veto over whether their country enters into a declaration or agreement under the UN Charter. Rather, indigenous voices are always heard through government representatives or other stakeholders during the process of drafting documents such as the Rio Declaration.
The United Nations Summit on Environment and Progress (UNCED), often known as the Earth Summit, was a conference held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 3–14, 1992, to reconcile global economic development with environmental conservation. The summit aimed to adopt a new agreement on climate change mitigation, adaptation, and sustainable development.
In preparation for the summit, leaders of almost 200 countries met in Madrid from February 21 to March 2, 1992, at a meeting called by President Carlos Arias Navarro of Spain. The goal of this first meeting was to establish a plan for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases while increasing agricultural productivity. This plan was named the Madrid Protocol after the location of the meeting.
At its onset, the UNCED appeared to be an unlikely success story. After all, just a few years before this summit, environment had become a controversial topic around the world. In particular, the debate over whether or not man-made changes to the atmosphere were causing climate change was reaching a fever pitch. However, through the use of innovative ideas and discussions, plus the help of several powerful nations, the UNCED was able to come up with an agreement that has since been signed by more than 100 countries.
One of the main goals of the UNCED was to create a framework for future negotiations on climate change issues.
The major goal of the National Water Mission (NWM) is "water conservation, waste reduction, and more equal distribution of water between and within states through integrated water resource development and management."
This mission will be achieved by developing and implementing programs and projects that benefit water resources and the environment. Some examples of these activities include: providing assistance to state and local governments in planning for and managing their watersheds; conducting research on water-related issues; and helping communities develop sustainable practices such as recycling and reuse programs.
The NWM was created by Congress when it passed the Safe Drinking Water Act in 1974. The act authorized $10 million per year over three years to help state and local governments plan for and manage their drinking water supplies. It also required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the states in developing their own plans.
Since its creation, the NWM has received continuous funding from various sources including federal agencies and Congress. In addition to its ongoing support, the NWM receives special allocation funds when disaster strikes, such as after hurricanes or floods. These one-time allocations are used for specific project purposes such as restoring damaged wetlands or installing water treatment facilities.
Over the past 40 years, the NWM has become one of EPA's most important tools for protecting our waters.
More than 100 heads of state gathered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992 for the first worldwide Earth Summit to address pressing issues of environmental conservation and socioeconomic growth. The summit produced a United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and a Plan of Action to implement its provisions.
During the summit, President Bush delivered an important speech outlining U.S. commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and help developing countries cope with climate change. He also announced that the United States would participate in the Kyoto Protocol, which established a global framework for reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases from fuel combustion and industrial processes. In addition, President Bush announced that the United States would provide $10 million to assist poor countries in adapting to climate change and mitigating its effects.
Rio+20 will take place in June 2020.