Subnational political-territorial units are the consequence of devolution, which gives an area more authority from the central government. Balkanization is the process by which an area or state gets fragmented or divided into smaller territories or nations that are frequently hostile or unfriendly with one another. Relationship between a majority and a minority can be based on common language, culture, history or any other factor. Many countries have regions or provinces that are not equal in size or power to either the states or the major cities within them. These regions usually have their own governments with limited powers, but they can function as autonomous entities within the broader country.
Subnational territorial units include: counties, towns, cities, districts, parishes, etc. In some cases, these units may have limited powers granted to them by law. In other cases, they may have most of the powers associated with lower levels of government reserved to them by their parent higher-level unit (e.g., counties cannot pass laws without approval from the state legislature). Subnational territorial units can also be defined by population size or other factors such as economic capability or interest. For example, Oakland County, Michigan has its own government with limited powers, but it can function as an independent municipality from the State of Michigan.
Subnational political-territorial units can be divided into two broad categories: core areas and peripheral areas. Core areas are those that contain one or more national monuments, while peripheral areas do not.
What exactly does territorial or geographical devolution entail? The division of a state as a result of distance, remoteness, and marginal placement from the capital. This form of government is common in rural areas where it is impractical to have a central government office for every village. Instead, each village retains some level of local autonomy.
In general, territories are given more power over their own affairs through geographic devolution. This may include control of education, health care, public safety, and other services that aren't tied to taxes. In contrast, constitutional devolution gives new governments the power to make their own decisions about these issues without voting them in by popular vote. Some examples of this type of system include counties, cities, and municipalities.
Territorial devolution can be good or bad depending on how it is implemented. If communities want to keep certain powers within the state government, they can be granted through legislative action. For example, a legislature could pass legislation granting certain counties the power to determine their own budgets and spending plans without approval from the state government.
On the other hand, if communities are given complete independence from the state then they are no longer subject to the same laws and regulations.
Regionalization is the politico-administrative process by which regions emerge as meaningful units of analysis for economic and political activity, as well as welfare and service provision. Regions may be created by government decree (as under Soviet rule), by administrative division (as under British rule), or some combination thereof.
Regions provide greater autonomy to their constituent municipalities than does national government. This can include direct appointment and removal powers as well as more limited authority over local affairs such as the ability to set tax rates. In many cases, regions also have control over their own budgets. Greater regionwide accountability is often a goal of regional leaders who may seek to improve services by bringing attention to poor performance by departments or agencies within their boundaries.
Regions can also serve as venues for the discussion and resolution of local issues and problems. This was particularly common in Europe where a large number of smaller countries prevented the creation of a single dominant city or metropolitan area. Here, regions served as places where different interests could come together and find compromise rather than simply fighting each other out in a national election year.
Finally, regions provide greater legitimacy for their leaders since they are viewed as representing a larger portion of the population.
In conclusion, regions provide greater autonomy to their constituent municipalities than does national government.
A unit of land specified by governmental authority and generally with its own political structure. Political regions are usually larger units than countries but can be smaller if they have no significant natural boundaries such as oceans or large unpopulated areas.
They may be defined in terms of history, culture, or any other characteristic relevant to politics. The European Union is an example of a political region defined by treaty. Countries cannot withdraw themselves from a regional organization so it is permanent until it collapses under its own weight. A more temporary arrangement is the North American Free Trade Agreement between Canada, Mexico, and the United States which has already collapsed once after the U.S. withdrew itself from it.
Some political scientists divide countries into three main categories based on their degree of centralization: federal states, semi-presidential states, and presidential states. These categories do not necessarily correspond to the strength or weakness of each country's government; for example, Sweden and Switzerland are both highly centralized nations that also have strong parliamentary systems. However, these categories do give us an idea of how much power is held by different institutions within each nation.
Federal states are those in which power is divided between a national parliament, a government, and a supreme court.