Equality is about giving everyone an equal chance to make the most of their life and skills. It is also the concept that no one should have fewer opportunities in life because of how they were born, where they came from, what they believe, or if they have a disability. August 2nd, 2018 has been declared "Equality Day" by UNESCO.
In 2020, equality will be at the heart of every decision we make as a society. Equality and diversity will be embedded in everything we do, and underpinned by sustainable development. They will form part of our daily lives, and lie at the heart of all we do. They will help us reach our full potential, and ensure that no one is left out in the world.
We need equality in order to build a more cohesive society where everyone can enjoy true dignity and opportunity. We cannot achieve this goal alone, but only through collaboration and action from everyone involved. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the largest international agreement ever adopted, and the first universal plan of action for humanity, outlines how we can bring about equality across time and space. It includes 17 goals, which seek to improve health, education, employment, energy, economy, environment, and other areas. These goals are interconnected, and none of them can be achieved without considering others. For example, achieving gender equality is important for enabling women to better access education and employment.
Equality entails having full and equal access to all rights and liberties. To promote equality, legal and other measures meant to protect or advance persons or groups of people who have been harmed by unjust discrimination may be implemented. These measures are called anti-discrimination laws.
In South Africa, the Constitution provides for freedom from discrimination on several grounds such as gender, language, religion, and race. This includes black people, who made up 95 percent of the country's population when it became independent in 1910. The apartheid government established laws that discriminated against blacks; for example, they were not allowed into most industries or universities. These laws were ruled unconstitutional by an international court in 1986. However, even today, many aspects of life remain unequal for blacks and others who have been harmed by racism.
There is still much work to be done to ensure equality for all citizens. Women continue to be underrepresented in politics and senior management positions within companies. Although crime rates have dropped since 1994, there is still violence against women. One form of violence that has increased since then is female infanticide. In 2008, this problem was highlighted when officials found more than 500 cases of infant death among women living in homeless shelters across South Africa.
The new government has made it a priority to improve women's rights, especially those in rural areas where they are often denied access to education and health care.
The term "equality" refers to the lack of special benefits for any segment of society as well as the availability of equal chances for all persons without discrimination. The Indian Constitution's preamble, or introduction, provides equality of status and opportunity for all Indian citizens. It also includes equality before law as one of the basic freedoms for everyone.
In practice, equality is not always respected in India. In many cases, women and men are treated differently by the government as well as private employers. Some differences may be justified on grounds of religion (e.g., Islam permits a male Muslim leader several wives) or caste (e.g., untouchables are excluded from some services). However, such allowances are often challenged in court by groups who argue that they violate equality principles.
In addition to legal provisions, social practices also influence how equality is understood and implemented in India. For example, the presence of an unequal gender ratio in local communities can be interpreted as inequality between the sexes. Yet, if all families have the same chance to find spouses within their community, then no single family would have a advantage over others. Similarly, if the government offers employment opportunities to both men and women, but only women apply for them, this could be seen as evidence of discrimination against men. However, if there are not enough jobs to go around, it could also be explained by the fact that women need better career options than what are currently available to them.
Equality is widely used to refer to the concept of equal treatment. The concept of equality, as a political ideal, evokes the idea that all human beings have equal worth regardless of their color, gender, ethnicity, or nationality. Human beings need equal treatment and respect due to their common humanity. In this sense, equality is a fundamental principle of ethics and a goal of politics.
In economics, equality refers to economic equality or equity. Economic equality means that all members of a society or group of societies receive equivalent access to resources such as income, goods, and services. Equity refers to the idea that people should not be treated differently because they hold different positions in the social hierarchy (such as class, race, gender, religion, age, or ability) and that they should have an equal opportunity to acquire resources.
Economic inequality occurs when some people have greater access than others to valuable resources such as food, shelter, education, and health care. It can also occur when some people are better able to use these resources to gain additional advantages over others. For example, someone who is rich may be able to afford excellent medical care that poor people cannot afford.
In statistics, equality of opportunity means that persons born into the same family, who have the same parents, and who live in the same house hold have about an equal chance of reaching any given level of achievement.