Senators in Class II whose terms of service expire in 2027 Senators in Class II were elected to office in the November 2020 general election, unless they were appointed or elected in a special election. Senators are elected directly under Amendment XVII (1913). The number of senators from each state cannot be less than two nor more than two hundred and one. Each state gets at least two seats regardless of population size. In addition, the last two senators elected will serve six-year terms instead of the usual four.
The Constitution does not specify a method for appointing Senators who are not up for election. However, since 1913, all but three appointees have been governors. The only exceptions were when the governor was unable to serve due to death or resignation and the president appointed a temporary senator until the next election year. Currently, there are 39 states plus the District of Columbia. They are listed below by appointment method: 13 by executive order, 11 by appointment, 14 by election, one by death, and one by the Judiciary Committee of the New Jersey Senate after a judge was unable to serve due to age or illness.
In addition to their role in confirming judges, some states give their Senators power over federal legislation by placing them on relevant committees. For example, North Carolina senators sit on the Commerce committee which reviews bills relating to commerce with other states as well as bills that affect businesses in North Carolina.
Senators of Class III whose terms of service expire in 2023 Unless they were appointed or elected in a special election, Class III senators were elected in the November 2016 general election. The amendment provides for the direct election of U.S. senators by the people. It also provides that if the legislature fails to provide for such election by a specified date, then the voters shall have that power themselves through a constitutional convention.
The number of Class III senators will be reduced from 15 to 14 as a result of the 2020 U.S. Census. The new apportionment plan takes effect in 2021, when the first Senate classes will be seated.
Class III senators serve six-year terms and cannot be removed from office except by death, resignation, or impeachment.
Class III senators play an important role in the legislative process by serving on committees and subcommittees. They can also file bills and propose amendments to existing laws. However, because they are elected by the people, every three years they must stand for re-election. If elected, a Class III senator would have to leave office after six years.
Senators in Class II whose terms of service expire in 2027 Class II terms last from the start of the 117th Congress on January 3, 2021 until the conclusion of the 119th Congress on January 3, 2027. In order to be eligible for re-election, a Senator must be a resident of the state they represent for at least 9 months out of the year and may not hold any other federal office. The President can also appoint or reprieve a senator at any time before their term ends. A senator can only be removed from office by death, resignation, or expulsion.
A senator becomes "senatorial" when he or she is appointed to fill a vacancy in the office. Appointments are usually made during the first day of class after the election at which the seat became vacant. However, an appointment may be made at any time before then if necessary. Length of appointment depends on how long the vacancy lasts; if no action is taken, the appointee serves out the remainder of the original senator's term.
There are currently 100 seats in the Senate. As well as representing states, senators also serve as members of committees that handle issues before the full body. Committee assignments change every year based on which party controls which bodies. Generally speaking, senators from the same party cluster together on committees designed to promote cooperation between them and their staffs.
Senators are elected to six-year terms, and members of one class—roughly one-third of the senators—face election or reelection every two years. Senators in Class I have terms that end in 2025, Senators in Class II have terms that expire in 2027, and Senators in Class III have terms that expire in 2023. All three classes will be up for election this year.
The Constitution provides for a number of procedural hurdles that must be overcome before a senator can be removed from office. The most important of these is conviction by impeachment, which is rare but not unprecedented.
Other ways of removing a senator include death, resignation, defection, and impalement. A senator can also be expelled by the Senate if he or she commits a "high crime and misdemeanor" as defined by the Constitution. No senator has ever been expelled, but several have been censured -- an official rebuke -- and some have had their names withheld from future elections.
Finally, a senator can lose his or her seat through death, resignation, or otherwise becoming ineligible to hold office. Such vacancies are filled in similar congressional elections within six months of the vacancy occurring.
Overall, senators are some of the most powerful people in Congress because of the impact that they can have on major legislation before the Senate. The majority leader can bring legislation to the floor for a vote; without him or her, nothing passes.
Election to the Senate is determined by a popular vote for either an individual or a political party. The Constitution provides for equal representation of each state, so some states may have more than one senator.
Each state has two senators, with exceptions listed below. If a state has more than two senators, they are divided into three classes. A class 1 seat is up for election every 2 years, while a class 3 seat is only up for election once every 6 years. Voters select their preferred candidate from among those on the ballot during any given election. If no one receives a majority of votes, then the top two vote-getters advance to a runoff election. If voters still can't decide between them, then the Senate votes on which candidate it should back.
The Constitution does not specify how voting in elections for U.S. senators should be conducted, so each state has its own system. Some states are direct-election states, where voters directly elect their senators; others use a primary election to determine who will represent their parties in the general election. Some states hold their primaries in March, while others hold them in September.