While Article 247 discusses the exceptions or limits on applying the constitution to tribal regions, Article 246 focuses on identifying which portions of Pakistan are recognized as tribal areas. These include: (1) Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), (2) Balochistan, and (3) Sindh.
In addition to this list, other regions have been identified as "tribal" by some observers, including (1) Punjab (which has a large population of agrarian Muslims known as Muhajirs who migrated from India after the 1857 Indian Rebellion against British Rule), and (2) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly known as North-West Frontier Province). However, these regions are not considered tribal by others because they are not traditionally inhabited by Pashtun tribes such as the Afridi or Makrani tribes.
However, neither the FATA nor any other region is officially designated as "non-tribal". Rather, the term "tribal area" is used unofficially to describe those areas where federal laws do not apply, and where individuals can engage in activities including hunting, fishing, and trading without penalty.
In addition, certain categories of people are exempt from military service in tribal areas.
The Constitution is split into seven sections: Introduction (I), Fundamental Rights and Policy Principles (II), The Federation of Pakistan (III), Provinces (IV), Federation-Province Relations (V), Finance, Property, Contracts, and Suits (VI), The Judicature (VII), Elections...
There are also several Schedules to the Constitution that include special laws such as a Federal Law on Islamic Courts (Schedule VIII). There are also general orders in the form of letters patent that amend or modify certain provisions of the Constitution.
Article 1 states the following about the role of the President: "President shall be the head of state and shall be charged with executing the functions of the government. He shall be elected by the Electoral College by secret vote by national ballot to serve for a term of five years..."
The number of people who voted in the 1972 Presidential Election was 1,671,061 out of a total population of 3,306 million (52.3 percent) - the highest percentage ever recorded at a national election. In addition to being the country's first ever electronic election, it also had the highest turnout at 77.5 percent. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto won the election with more than 2 million votes ahead of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman...
In section II of the Constitution, there are three policy principles stated as follows: "Pakistan shall be a sovereign democratic republic.
The Constitution of Pakistan is meant to steer the country's legislation, political culture, and system. The first six articles of the constitution define the political system as a federal parliamentary republic with Islam as the state religion. The remaining parts of the document set out guidelines for the government to follow.
It can be said that the Constitution is the highest law in the land. It can only be changed through a process called "amendment". To date, there are more than 80 amendments have been made to it.
Every amendment must be approved by at least two-thirds of both houses of parliament. If it fails to do so, it dies. Thus, the Constitution is very flexible and can be altered at any time if the ruling elite see fit to do so.
In practice, however, the Constitution limits the power of the executive branch, especially after 2008 when military leaders took control of the government from elected officials. The Constitution was originally drafted by a committee of lawyers and other civil servants, but since its adoption it has been amended many times. The most recent amendment was made in 2014 when the previous administration proposed twelve amendments to address issues such as corruption, electoral reform, and labor rights. These amendments will go into effect following approval by parliament.
Each amendment must be ratified by at least half of all states - otherwise it dies.
Amendments to Pakistan's Constitution
|26th||The seats of tribal districts in the National Assembly of Pakistan will be retained at 12 while their seats in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly have been increased to 24 from 16.||Full Text|
As a result, the Indian Constitution is both flexible and strict. The provisions for amending the Indian Constitution are found in Article 368. The Constitution allows for three methods of amendment. They are as follows: A simple majority is required to modify some provisions of the Constitution. However, for changing the basic structure or the system of government, it requires ratification by votes of the people through referendums or constitutional conventions.
The Indian Constitution can be amended either through Parliament or through popular vote. However, to amend the Constitution you need the approval of two-thirds of both the Houses of Parliament or through a public referendum/ballot initiative.
The procedure for amending the Constitution is as follows: If an amendment is proposed in the House of People's Representants (lower house) by at least one tenth of its members, then the amendment can be considered by that body. If passed by the House of People's Representants, the amendment will then have to be ratified by the Senate (upper house). The Senate can accept all or any part of the amendments proposed by the House of People's Representants; however, if it rejects an amendment, then it cannot be accepted by Parliament and is therefore dead. Each state has its own legislature called "State Assembly" which can amend the constitution of their choice. These amendments also require the approval of Parliament or not based on its composition at that time.
4: Laws enacted under Articles 2 and 3 to change the First and Fourth Schedules, as well as additional, incidental, and consequential subjects. 5 Citizenship at the Constitution's Inauguration 6 Citizenship rights of certain immigrants who came to India from Pakistan after its independence in 1947 7 National Anthem Act, 2001 (came into effect from May 2014) 8 Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Amendment) Act, 2000 (came into effect from April 2003)
These amendments were necessary because of the changes made to these articles by the 42nd Amendment.
The 42nd Amendment, which became effective on November 16, 2002, extended the term of office of the President from six to seven years. It also provided for the extension of the term of office of the Vice-President from five to six years. The amendment was needed because the current President, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, had been elected in 1998 and his term was due to expire in 2007. The amendment was passed by Parliament and approved by then-current Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
The 43rd Amendment, which will become effective on January 20, 2016, extends the term of Parliament itself from five to ten years, thereby changing the structure of government from a presidential system to a parliamentary system.