The law of the land refers to the whole set of legitimate laws, statutory or otherwise, that exist and are in effect in a nation or jurisdiction at a given time. With regard to its subject matter, every legitimate statute is the "law of the land."
In English law, the expression has a specific meaning relating to the king's commands: it is the body of statutes known as "statutes made by royal command". These statutes include all those enacted by Parliament from the 12th century onwards, as well as some earlier laws such as Assize of Arms (1153) and Domesday Book (1086). They also includes many later statutes such as the Police and Criminal Justice Act 2000 that were not made by royal command.
In United States law, the expression has a similar meaning with respect to federal statutes: they are the laws that have been passed by Congress and signed by the president. However, there are other laws that may be called "the law of the land" because they are found in state constitutions, statutes, or case law. For example, the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution is referred to as the "law of the land" because it was adopted through the process of constitutional amendment rather than legislation. However, due to its importance, no country would consider amending its own constitution by popular vote to be an unlawful act.
Many aspects of our daily lives are influenced by land law. It establishes who owns property on the land, who has access to it, your rights to land as a tenant, and what you may do with it. Land law also impacts how we produce food, fuel, and other products. It controls pollution through the disposal of waste materials and it affects how much heat is released into the atmosphere when we burn trees or other vegetation.
Land laws vary from country to country, but there are some general principles that apply across the board. The main function of land law is to allocate ownership interests in the land without actually transferring the title. For example, if I buy an apartment building from my friend, I don't take title to the land under the building; instead, I grant my friend an interest in the property that allows him to sell off parts of the plot if he wants to. This is called "beneficial ownership" and it's how most non-owner residents of private homes can enjoy the benefits of owning property without having to deal with its responsibilities. A less common form of beneficial ownership is "life estate ownership", which gives a person temporary control over the property while still allowing them to pass away without losing their investment.
When someone dies without a will, their assets are distributed according to state law.
"This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every Court in the United States shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every Court in the United States shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every Court in the United States shall be the supreme Law of the Land." - Article VI, Section 2, Constitution of the State of Indiana
The "supreme law of the land" is a term used in several places in the United States Constitution: Article VI (the Supremacy Clause), Article II (the President), and the Tenth Amendment. It is also used in the Insular Cases to describe the general rule that the territorial legislature can pass any law not in conflict with federal law or the Constitution.
In English common law, the term "supreme law of the land" was used to describe the King's Iustice as the only legal authority within a kingdom or state. The phrase came into use during the English Bill of Rights when it was adopted by Virginia as part of their declaration of rights. The word "land" was added to conform to the language of other similar documents such as those of Pennsylvania and Delaware. The term originally applied only to laws passed by the Virginia General Assembly but was later extended to include treaties made by the Commonwealth with other nations.
Land and property laws in Israel are the component of Israeli law that provides the legal basis for ownership and other in rem rights to all types of property in Israel, including real estate (land) and mobile goods. Aside from tangible property, such as vehicles, buildings, and machinery, every aspect of human experience can be owned: ideas, patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, business plans, financial instruments, etc.
The main legislation on property is the Civil Law Property Act, 1950. This act was adopted by the Knesset (Israel's parliament) and became effective on January 1, 1951. It replaced earlier legislation on property dating back to Ottoman times. The 1950 Act implemented major changes in Israeli property law with respect to both tenants by the entireties and joint tenants. Under prior law, only married couples were considered capable of holding property as tenants by the entirety. The 1950 Act removed this limitation, thereby making all owners of property within Israel's borders eligible to hold it in that form. The Act also included provisions regarding mortgagees' rights and responsibilities.
In addition to the 1950 Act, various other statutes regulate specific aspects of property law. For example, the Criminal Procedure Act regulates issues such as search warrants, indictments, and the right to a speedy trial. The Environment Protection Act governs environmental protection regulations.
The main statute governing land is the Land Acquisition Act, 1953.