Panchayat samiti are intermediate-level rural local governments in panchayat raj organizations. It has been described as the "panchayat of panchayats." The term originated in India during the British rule when certain regions were divided into districts and these districts were subdivided into mandals (regions). Each mandal was represented by a mandal president, who was usually an elected official. Together they formed the panchayat samiti - the council of councils.
In modern times, most countries that have a developed system of government employ some form of administrative division at a subnational level. These may be provinces or states, but often have different names and levels of authority. In many cases, the creation of these divisions occurs as a result of political controversies or for other reasons. For example, after the American Civil War, several former Confederate States of America were reorganized into federal territories and later states. Another example can be found in India, where there are now 29 states and 7 union territories. However, in some cases, such as with the United Kingdom, Australia or New Zealand, the divisions are defined by law rather than politics. Often, only the highest level division is named after a specific region; for example, Alberta and Ontario are both provinces of Canada, but each has its own unique government and administration.
In India, a Panchayat samiti is a local government entity at the tehsil or taluka level. It is applicable to villages within a tehsil or taluka that form a development block. The Panchayat Samiti connects the Gram Panchayat to the district administration. It is responsible for urban development activities in its area of responsibility.
How does a Panchayat function? A Panchayat is an elected body which advises the government on various issues related to village life. The members are elected by popular vote to serve for a period of four years. If no one files nomination papers for any of the available seats, then those sitting out their term automatically get re-elected. The head of the panchayat is called the pradhan or chairperson. Other members include: secretary, assistant secretaries, financial commissioner, legal adviser, media coordinator, and social workers. In some states, they can also choose to appoint other officials such as teachers or doctors.
A Panchayat can take decisions on all matters concerning the welfare of the community, including education, health, sanitation, employment, agriculture, and infrastructure. They can even make laws and impose taxes within their jurisdiction. However, they cannot issue any money-issuing documents like licenses or permits. These types of functions are performed by other government agencies or departments. A Panchayat can also declare some areas outside its boundary as reserved for specific purposes.
Panchayat samiti (also known as Mandal panchayat, Taluka panchayat, or Block panchayat) are intermediate-level panchayat raj organisations (PRI). The system was introduced in India by former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in order to give local people a say in how their areas are run. There are around 15,000 panchayats across India, with each consisting of a group of citizens who meet together to discuss issues affecting their community and decide on policies for their area. He/she is usually elected by the members of the panchayat committee. Other members include a doctor, an educator, a priest, and so on.
Mandal Panchayat is a system of government used in some states of India. It provides for a separate government at the sub-district level composed of representatives from different communities living within the mandal boundaries. Each mandal has its own administration headed by a chairperson who is usually elected by the members of the panchayat committee.
The panchayat system was introduced into India by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1975 with the objective of giving local people a say in how their areas were run.
A Panchayat Samiti (block panchayat) is a tehsil-level local government entity. This body works for the communities in the tehsil, which are referred to as a "development block." It is also involved in various other activities such as planning and development of villages within the tehsil.
In India, every panchayat has a samiti as its executive committee. This committee is responsible for running the affairs of the panchayat. It is usually elected by the members of the panchayat through open or closed elections. The members can be either hereditary or elected.
Panchayats were created by the Constitution of India. They have special status under the law.
Currently, there are about 5,000 panchayats in India. They cover nearly all parts of the country except for Jammu and Kashmir, New Delhi, and some other urban areas.
In India, only villages can be organized into gram panchayats. In most states, this process is initiated by the village council (also known as the town hall). Usually, only villages with more than 100 houses follow this procedure. Otherwise, they are directly administered by the state government.
At the block level, a Panchayat Samiti is constituted. All Panchayat members in that region vote to elect the members of this representative body. A Panchayat Samiti, or block, or Mandal is formed by combining a few Gram Panchayats. There are three types of villages - urban, semi-urban and rural - and accordingly there are also three types of Panchayats - Urban, Semi-Urban and Rural.
In some states like Kerala and Telangana, there is a separate elected body called Zilla Parishad (district council) which functions similar to a Panchayat Samiti at the district level. However, unlike Panchayats, these bodies are not accountable to the public but to government officials higher up in the hierarchy.
In other states like Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, there is no such body at the block level but each village head has certain powers related to health, sanitation, education etc. as may be delegated to him/her from time to time. The power of decision making on these issues rests with the Gram Panchayat which is usually elected by the villagers themselves.