The story is told in Surah Al-Hashr (Chapter 59-The Gathering), which details the expulsion of the Jewish tribe Banu Nadir from Medina after they plotted to kill the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It begins with Allah's announcement to the tribe that He is going to destroy them, and ends with their expulsion from the city.
The revelation concerning this chapter was completed in 6 A.H. (Note: A.D. 6 or 60). The battle of Badr took place in A.H. 3 (624 A.D.). So, this sura must have been revealed shortly before or during this event.
It is interesting to note that although this chapter describes a major invasion/battle event, it does not include any reference to Allah (God) or His prophets. The only time God mentions a battle is when Moses is about to enter into battle against Amalek (see Ex. 17:8-16). Even though Moses will be fighting on behalfance of God, he still has to ask Him to help him win the battle.
This chapter contains many important principles regarding prayer and religion that are needed in today's world.
Background and brief commentary by Surah Buroj This surah was most likely revealed at Mecca, at a later period of Prophet Muhammad's teaching in Mecca when persecution had become harsh. The Surah describes the persecution of believers. It also contains a major argument used by non-Muslims to discredit Islam. This argument is known as "the hypocrisy of Muslims." In other words, it accuses Muslims of being hypocrites because they claim to believe in one God yet they kill people for not believing in their religion.
Surah Buroj has been included in many books on the revelations that were made to Prophet Muhammad. These books are called "Hadith" (meaning traditions). There are many different versions of the Hadith book. But all of them include this surah.
According to some scholars, the first verse was revealed when Prophet Muhammad escaped from Mecca to Medina. Other verses were revealed at different times during his mission.
In any case, this surah reveals much about the character of Muslims today. The fact that so many people have interpreted this text as supporting violence against others' beliefs shows that the heart of Islam is truly peaceful.
The Meccan chapters are thought to have been revealed before the Islamic prophet Muhammed and his companions moved from Mecca to Medina (Hijra). The Medinan surahs are the alleged revelations that happened after the relocation. According to some scholars, such as Al-Azdani and Ahmad, most if not all of the Medinan chapters were revealed during this period.
However, other scholars believe that some Medinan chapters may also be earlier revelations. For example, Abdel Haleem believes that chapter 8 of the Qur'an was probably revealed in Mecca before the migration. He says "the fact that it mentions the pilgrimage to Makkah shows that it was written before the Hijra". Abdul Hamid Siddiqui agrees with this view. He writes "a reference has been made by way of explanation in 8:25 about the pilgrimage ('umrah) to Makkah which took place later". Muhammad Hashim Kamali argues that some Medinan verses may have been revealed at a time when Islam was only known through reports about it rather than having any actual presence there, thus they could have been revealed long before or even simultaneously with some of the Meccan chapters.
There are various views regarding the chronological order of the chapters.
The chapter was presumably revealed around 2 A. H. following the Battle of Badr, the first defensive combat between Meccans and Muslim inhabitants of Medina after they escaped persecution in Mecca, according to the prominent Muslim philosopher Abul A'la Maududi. This is because the battle is described in detail in this chapter.
An-Nahl (the plural of Nahl) is the name of a chapter of the Qur'an that deals with battles. The word Anfal (plural of Anfaal) means "accounts" or "records". Thus, the title of this chapter implies that it records past, current and future battles.
According to some scholars, the term "battle" is used here in a broad sense to include any kind of conflict, whether military or not. However, other scholars take an-Nahl as referring specifically to military conflicts.
The battle of Badr was the first major victory achieved by the nascent Muslim community over its opponents from the tribe of Khazraj. It established Islam as a viable political force in Arabia. Following this victory, the Muslims began organizing themselves into a nation state, which eventually became known as Saudi Arabia.
The verse number of the chapter (9) indicates that it was revealed in the year of the Hijrah (16). The order in which various chapters are revealed determines their revelation date.