The document establishes the framework that delineates the fundamental political code, structure, processes, powers, and duties of government institutions, as well as fundamental rights, guiding principles, and citizen responsibilities. It has the world's longest written constitution of any country.
Canada's first Constitution was drafted at the suggestion of George III and went into effect on February 15, 1867. The current Constitution of Canada was adopted by referendum in 1982 and entered into force on January 1, 1983. It replaces the previous Constitution which had been in effect since 1981.
The new Constitution makes significant changes from the previous one. For example, it abolishes the monarchy and creates a federal parliamentary system with three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. It also includes important provisions related to citizenship, equality before the law, religious freedom, and social justice.
In addition, the new Constitution defines Canada as a bilingual country and ensures its English and French languages are equally protected.
Finally, the new Constitution introduces certain innovations specific to Canadian practice such as the idea of "notwithstanding anything else in this Constitution", which allows the government to override parts of the document if necessary (for example, if Parliament decides to change some aspects of how elections are held).
These are just some of the many changes that have been made to Canada's original Constitution.
The Constitution of India is the world's longest written constitution, with 146,385 words in its English-language version, whereas the Constitution of Monaco is the world's smallest, with 3,814 words. It has been called the "world's most successful experiment in democracy" and "a textbook model of a democratic document". It has been praised for its ability to adapt to new conditions while preserving the essence of its original design.
India's founding father, Mahatma Gandhi, described it as "a marvel of human genius". Indian economist Amartya Sen called it a "landmark in the history of human thought and action". Western scholars have also recognized its importance. One wrote that it had "transformed an agrarian society into an efficient modern state", while another noted that it contained "some of the most important economic reforms in any country".
The Constitution has been amended several times since its adoption in 1950. However it can still be used to limit government power or protect individual rights because it can be modified only by Parliament (which has the authority to amend laws) or through a constitutional amendment (which requires ratification by states).
The Indian Constitution The Constitution of India is the world's longest written constitution, with 146,385 words in its English-language version, whereas the Constitution of Monaco is the world's smallest, with 3,814 words. It was drafted over several months at a conference in Delhi that began on 21 October 1952 and ended with the signing of the final document on 26 February 1953. The text was then ratified by the states within six weeks of its completion.
In addition to being the world's longest written constitution, the Indian Constitution is also the most complex system of laws ever created by a single government. It divides power between the federal government and the individual states, who in turn divide it among their own governments and bodies. The Constitution was designed as a balance sheet for the people after years of colonization by Britain and France; it provides for a strong central government with powers such as defense, foreign affairs, and currency but also includes provisions for state autonomy including social welfare, education, and health care. It has been criticized for not providing for economic reforms or adequate protection against discrimination based on religion, gender, or caste.
The current Constitution was adopted in 1992 after its previous version from 1950 was found to be inadequate during judicial reviews. It replaced the former version which had itself been adopted in 1947 after independence from Britain.
The Constitution, the oldest written national constitution still in force, specifies the primary institutions of government and their jurisdictions, as well as individuals' basic rights.... The Constitution is the supreme law of the land.
America's first Constitution was written back in 1787 by our founding fathers to establish freedom and democracy for its new colonies. It has been amended over time since then but none of these amendments have ever been done voluntarily by the people themselves. Instead, they were all passed by their respective states' legislatures and ratified by the Congress of the United States.
All in all, it can be said that the United States of America stands out as one of the few countries in the world who has a written Constitution.
A country's constitution is its ultimate law. It comprises the basic norms that govern the country and its institutions. The Constitution describes the authority of the entities as well as their boundaries. It also characterizes the political system of the country. There is a Federal Constitution and State Constitutions in Australia. The United States has one Constitution for all citizens everywhere. Japan has a Constitution for the Emperor alone.
The word "constitution" comes from the Latin constittutio, meaning "the act of constituting". In the context of governments, the term refers to the set of rules by which a country is governed. These rules can be expressed as laws or as an unwritten set of practices/traditions. Countries have different methods for introducing changes to their constitutions. Some countries may have a constitutional amendment process while others may just amend their constitutions through legislation or executive orders.
Different types of constitutions exist depending on how much power is held by the president or leader of the government. Semi-presidential systems combine the powers of a head of state with those of a head of government, whereas presidential systems give complete power to one person. Parliamentary systems require that laws be approved by both the legislative branch (parliament) and the executive branch (government). Direct democracies allow the people to vote on issues before them. Consensus systems work based on mutual agreement between members of a group.