The United Republic of Germany presidential system in each state Republic of parliaments Republic with a constitution that defines its territory and provides for the election of a president. The Philippines is one such republic.
The current Constitution was adopted on February 11, 1987, after being ratified by a majority of votes in a nationwide referendum held on the same day. It replaced the 1973 Constitution, which had been drafted during the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos. The new charter maintains many provisions of the earlier document but expands on others. For example, it establishes an independent judiciary as a crucial safeguard against future abuse of power. It also includes a bill of rights based on internationally recognized standards.
In addition to its president, the Philippines has a parliament or Congress made up of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. Elections are held every three years. The president can also call elections for their own seat in the House of Representatives; however, this has never happened.
Since the Philippines' independence from the United States in 1946, it has used a modified version of the presidential system. Under this system, which is known as "presidentialism", executive power is shared between the president and other officials such as vice presidents, ministers, and managers.
RepublicDemocracyRepresentative DemocracyUnited States of AmericaAn island country in the Caribbean Sea, north of Haiti and south of Cuba. The Dominican Republic has a population of almost 19 million people and its economy is dominated by tourism and sugar production.
The Dominican Republic has a constitutional republic with a president as head of state and a bicameral legislature. The president is elected for a four-year term and can be reelected once. The National Assembly has two chambers: the Senate consists of 16 members who are elected to three-year terms; the House of Representatives has 35 members who are elected for one-third of the seats in each chamber annually or before every election if earlier than that. The Supreme Court is made up of judges that are independent from political influence and serve for life.
In addition to being a republic, the Dominican Republic is also a democracy. Its system of government is based on democratic principles including freedom of speech, press, and religion. The Dominican Republic maintains close relations with the United States and other Western countries and is a member of numerous organizations such as UNASUR, CELAC, and APEC.
Dominican Republic's national anthem is "La Gira del Yuna".
The Philippines is a presidential republic with authority shared equally among its three branches: executive, legislative, and judiciary. Through this system of checks and balances, the government strives to act in the best interests of its population.
The president is both head of state and head of government. They are elected by direct vote for a four-year term, which can be renewed once. The president can also run for office again after an interruption of one term. If the president dies in office or is otherwise removed from power, then the vice president becomes acting president until a new election is held.
The Philippine congress, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives, is the other major organ of the government responsible for passing laws. Members of Congress are elected to four-year terms; they may be re-elected twice. The president can remove members of Congress from office but cannot force them to resign.
The judiciary is the third branch of government and includes the Supreme Court, district courts, municipal courts, and civil law courts. Judges are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate.
Thus, the functions of the government are divided among these three branches: the executive issues orders and policies, the legislature passes laws, and the judiciary interprets laws and rules on cases before it.
The president can be elected for a single six-year term, but may be re-elected for another term. The vice president serves as an ex-officio member of the executive branch of government and as chairman of the National Council for Culture and the Arts, but does not have a vote on any matter before or after they take office. The Senate is made up of 24 members who are elected to four-year terms. The House of Representatives has representatives from the country's provinces and cities; it meets every two years.
The Philippine Constitution limits the powers of the presidency. It cannot remove a prime minister without dissolving both houses of Congress and calling new elections. The president can sign treaties, but not veto laws; only Congress has that power. The president can also issue orders to federal agencies and direct the deployment of armed forces, but cannot make laws or declare war. The most powerful office in the country, the president must be a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and be at least 35 years old.
In practice, the president often has wide discretion over policy issues and can choose what role, if any, they want to play in shaping national affairs.