The Romans called several months following their places in the calendar year: September is the seventh month, October is the eighth, November is the ninth, and December is the tenth. Thus, the eighteenth month is called "January."
In English terminology, January is the first month of the year. It is also known as Ijanmaata (or Iyaruguu). The Yoruba name for January is Alara Igbagbaguoye, which means "the first month with rain". According to the Hebrew Calendar, January is Tamuz. In Hinduism, it is Pratipada which means "the first day".
In French, January is written comme un autre mois de l'année (like any other month of the year). But in Latin, it is not considered a part of the year but rather a separate season. Therefore, it is referred to as primum hiberniae mensem (the first winter month).
In German, January is den Januar. In Italian, it is gennaio. In Spanish, it is enero. In Portuguese, it is janeiro.
In Asian languages such as Chinese and Japanese, there are years that have one extra day compared to others.
September (from Latin septem, "seven") was the seventh of 10 months in the first known Roman calendar, the Romulus and Circumbulus calendar. September became the ninth month but preserved its identity after the calendar reform that brought January and February to the beginning of the year. Before that reform, August was the ninth month.
In the modern calendar, which now includes September, the first day of the month is called 1 Septembre, or simply Septembre. The second day is called 2 Septembre, and so on. September has 31 days.
Septembre is derived from the word septima, which means "7" in Latin. Thus, septembre is the seventh month.
The Romans counted from 1 Januarius to 30 Aprilis as well as from 1 Mayus to 31 Octobris. After these dates they added one more month, which they called "intercalum," meaning "between." This was necessary because they had not enough days in a month to fit all their months into a single year. For example, if they started counting at 1 Januarius, they would have reached 29 Februarius before reaching 150 Marchias. So they added one more month, named after the god Intercuspius, who was supposed to help farmers grow crops.
September, October, November, and December are called after the Roman numerals 7, 8, 9, and 10; they were originally the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth months of the Roman calendar! Prior to being renamed after Roman kings, July and August were known as Quintilis and Sextilis, which translates as the fifth and sixth months. The original names for January and February are Genesius and Februarius, which means "good" and "fortunate" respectively.
The Romans assigned individual gods as guardians of each month. These deities were believed to influence events that would take place during their months. For example, September's god was Remus who was said to have been raised by a wolf. His month was considered favorable for beginnings so it was used at the beginning of new projects. October's guardian was Cato whose name is associated with the word "cautious" because it was believed that he would warn people if danger approached. January's guardian was Janus who had two faces, one looking forward and one looking back. This meant that he had seen both the past and future. His month was considered favorable for endings so it was used at the end of things.
In addition to its use as a guard against dangers of all kinds, the month of September was also thought to contain gifts for those who studied music. This is why musicians tend to be popular individuals who can help others with their problems. October's gift is reason to be cautious because it contains elements necessary for building things like roads and houses.