Census 2000 was unlike previous decennial censuses. Respondents might identify as belonging to more than one racial group. The lengthy form was used during the last decennial census. The long form has been replaced by the American Community Survey (ACS).
Census 2000 also included a special section that collected data on international migrants. This feature is not expected to appear again on future censuses.
The first U.S. census was taken in 1790. Since that time, there have been changes made to the process of counting citizens. In 1930, a new system was put in place that eliminated enumeration by districts and incorporated all households into one large sample. Prior to this change, certain population groups did not have equal access to the census: people living in homes without plumbing or electricity were excluded.
In addition, immigrants were counted toward present population totals but not past counts. Beginning with the 1890 Census, foreign-born persons were asked to indicate their nationality. If they were born in another country, they were given the option of reporting themselves as American, British, or Other. If no country of birth was indicated, researchers assumed that individuals were born in America.
There are several other factors that make 1900 unusual.
A "extended form" of the 2000 census with over 100 questions was distributed to about 16% of households. The Integrated Public Use Microdata Series contains complete documentation on the 2000 census, including survey forms and a procedural history. This document describes the extended form.
The extended form of the census collects data on over 100 topics. These include basic demographic information such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, marital status, and occupation. It also includes questions on income, assets, homeownership, employment history, military service, disability, health conditions, use of medical services, family relationships, living arrangements, education, interest in politics, religion, and community activities, sexual behavior, and drug usage. Responses are collected by checking off options on answer sheets or using drop-down menus.
The extended form was administered to 6,562 families. Of these, 3,054 completed all 10 pages of the form, which included about 60 questions. Another 1,834 families completed some portion of the form. Thus, about 16% of U.S. households participated in the extended census.
Because responses on the extended form are used for statistical purposes, they are required by law to be accurate and reliable. To ensure this, the Census Bureau conducts annual tests of the quality of the data it receives from the extended form.
What are the many census types?
With the 2000 Census, Americans were given the option of marking all "race" categories with which they identified, resulting in the first decennial census of multiracial persons. Previously, people had to select one or more races. Now they can identify with as many as six different race categories - not including "other". The number of people reporting themselves as multiracial increased from 1 million in 1990 to nearly 7 million in 2010.
In addition, American Indians no longer have to classify themselves as White or Black, allowing them to report themselves as Indian alone or as mixed race.
Finally, Hispanics are now able to identify with five different categories on the census, instead of only three. They can choose among Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic origins.
The effect of these changes will be to increase the accuracy of racial statistics in America. Before 2000, little information was available about multiracial individuals. Since most mix-marriages include both minorities, these statistics will be available for use by policy makers and social workers.
States must determine how much funding to allocate to their public schools.
The United States census (plural censuses or census) is a ten-year census required by the United States Constitution. The first census following the American Revolution was taken in 1790, under Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson; since then, there have been 23 federal censuses. The population count determines the amount of funding that each state receives from the Federal Government and therefore has major political implications for states with small populations. In addition to legislative bodies, businesses need accurate information on their customer base to plan their operations. Censuses are also used as baseline surveys to measure changes over time in the population, such as growth and decline, by demographic group.
The census is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, a bureau within the Department of Commerce. The director of the Census Bureau is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The current director is Steven Dillingham. The Census Bureau plans and conducts the survey, reports results of the survey, and publishes materials related to the survey.
Census data are used by governments at all levels to allocate funds to areas with high population density and to determine where services should be concentrated. Businesses use census data to plan how many employees to hire or which products to market next.
People may be asked questions about themselves or about others in their household.
Census 2000 In addition, race was asked differently in the 2000 census than it had been previously. Most importantly, respondents could express their racial identification by picking one or more race groups. According to data, roughly 7 million Americans identify as members of two or more races. This number has increased since 1970, when less than 1 million people identified themselves as members of more than one race.
The ability to report more than one race is important because research shows that individuals who identify with multiple races experience discrimination in many areas of life, including employment and education.
Census Bureau researchers say this increase in multi-race reporting is due to changes made for Census 2000. The bureau added a question about ethnicity to obtain information on respondents' origins that may not have been revealed through the original five-question survey. "We believe that the opportunity to report more than one race is important for understanding issues such as racism and discrimination that affect people who identify with multiple races," says Dr. Sandra Hofferth, director of the Census Bureau's Race and Ethnicity Division.
Why is this important for educators? Educators need to know how to address the unique needs of students who are members of multiple races, because these students are likely to face barriers when trying to succeed in school.