The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), formed in 1929, is the country's oldest and most well-known Hispanic civil rights group. LULAC was founded at a moment in our country's history when Hispanics, despite their contributions to American civilization, were denied basic civil and human rights.
Its founders believed that there was a need for an organization that would promote awareness about discrimination against Latinos, work to eradicate such practices, and fight for their rights.
Today, LULAC continues this mission by advocating on behalf of Hispanic citizens who may face issues with regard to their citizenship status, access to services, or employment opportunities. The group also works to increase representation of Latinos in elected office.
LULAC has more than 3 million members across the United States and Canada. Although they come from many different countries, they share a similar culture and language, making them a very homogeneous group.
Almost 90 percent of LULAC members are of Mexican origin, while another 5 percent are of Puerto Rican origin. The remaining 1 percent includes individuals from other Latino or Caribbean countries such as Cuba, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Guatemala, and the Dominican Republic.
Although they were originally based in Texas, LULAC now has regional offices in all 50 states. There is also a national headquarters in Dallas.
The League of United Latin American Citizens' objective is to improve the economic situation, educational achievement, political influence, housing, health, and civil rights of the United States' Hispanic community. This is accomplished through political action and advocacy.
LULAC was founded in Corpus Christi, Texas, on March 23, 1955. A group of Mexican-American citizens were meeting with President Dwight D. Eisenhower when they decided that they needed an organization to help achieve equal rights for Hispanics in this country. They believed that no one agency could accomplish this task so they formed a coalition of like-minded people who shared their concern for the community.
LULAC has grown into a powerful lobbying organization that has influenced national policies toward Latinos. For example, LULAC successfully lobbied Congress to pass the 1968 Civil Rights Act and the 1992 Immigration Reform and Control Act.
Today, LULAC continues its mission by advocating for fair treatment of Latinos in employment, education, and other areas where they may be discriminated against because of their race or ethnicity. The organization also works to increase civic engagement among Latino voters so that they can exercise their right to vote and select officials who represent their interests.
LULAC has more than 2 million members across the country and some five million descendants.
The American Protective Association, formed in 1887, attempted to limit Catholic political dominance and safeguard public education, whereas the Immigration Restriction League, founded in 1894 by race-conscious Boston Brahmins, advocated for a literacy test to exclude "new" immigrants. Both groups used violent means to achieve their goals.
Today's holiday was created by Congress in 1938 as a tribute to all veterans who have served or are serving our country. The day is also observed to honor those who fought for civil rights throughout America's history, with particular attention given to men and women who had been prisoners of war and are now considered heroes because they gave their lives while serving their country.
In 1943, President Roosevelt signed a bill into law that would make Veterans Day a national holiday. It has been celebrated on November 11 since 1978 when it was made a federal holiday. Before then, it was originally called Armistice Day because it was on this day in 1918 that World War I ended with an armistice, not a true peace treaty.
Veterans Day is also known as Remembrance Day in some countries including Canada and the United Kingdom. In these countries, the holiday is marked by ceremonies at war memorials dedicated to the memory of those who died while serving their countries during times of conflict.
Organizations in Latin America are one-of-a-kind. The ALALC was changed into the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI) by the Second Treaty of Montevideo in 1980 to pursue the more ambitious objective of boosting the region's economic and social growth through the construction of a single market influenced by the European Communities. The aim is for Latin American countries to become independent economically, which would allow them to focus on developing their societies.
The treaty that formed ALADI was intended to help its members achieve this goal by reducing barriers to trade, removing tariffs on goods traded among member countries, and establishing an integrated financial system based on the European model. However today, some countries in Latin America remain dependent on foreign trade because they cannot produce enough goods to meet local demand. High inflation and poverty rates also hinder the region's integration into the world economy. Despite these challenges, several countries have made significant progress in integrating their economies with those of other regions through free trade agreements (FTAs). These agreements have been signed with Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and the United States. As of 2014, negotiations were under way with Argentina and Brazil.
Latin America remains one of the most economically isolated regions in the world. In terms of population size, it has more than 50 countries, each with its own government and laws they can do whatever they want with regard to promoting trade with other countries.
On January 28, 1901, the United States American League was established. It replaced the National League as the major league of baseball in America.
The new league had only three members at its inception: the Chicago White Stockings, the Cincinnati Reds and the New York Highlanders. However, it soon expanded to include many other teams from across the country. By the time World War II ended, there were eight remaining teams in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cleveland, Detroit, St. Louis, San Francisco and Los Angeles. Today, there are 30 teams in the league including a Toronto team that joined in 1992 after the Atlanta Braves moved to become one of four Canadian teams in the MLB. The AL has won every year since its creation with only two years (1914 and '15) when both leagues played each season's series equally close.
After the American League came into being, it was not long before it became apparent that there was going to be a need for more than just two leagues competing against each other on the field. So, in 1914, an agreement was reached between the two leagues whereby they would merge into one organization under the leadership of a single commissioner.