During World War I, the first fascist movements arose in Italy, before expanding to other European countries. Fascism is positioned on the far right of the conventional left-right axis, in opposition to liberalism, democracy, Marxism, and anarchist. It usually involves a merger of political power with an authoritarian group which makes use of discrimination based on class, race, gender, religion, ideology, or disability.
After World War II, it was used as a term to describe the government of Mussolini in Italy and Hitler's Germany. However, it is also used to describe other governments that exhibit similar traits including those of Pinochet in Chile, Suharto in Indonesia, and Saulatujjhuriin in Mongolia.
Fascism can be described as a political philosophy, but it is also associated with certain political behaviors and practices. Some examples of these include the following:
• The use of violence against opponents.
• The glorification of the nation, leader, and army.
• The restriction of freedom of speech, press, and organization.
• The exploitation of fear for political purposes.
• The destruction of political opponents.
Fascism is a type of strong authoritarian nationalism that arose in early twentieth-century Europe. During World War I, the first fascist movements developed in Italy, and they quickly expanded to other European countries. Fascist parties opposed many of the principles on which modern democracy is based, such as civil liberties, political freedom, and trade unions.
Italy's fascist movement was the first to use these techniques within Europe. Benito Mussolini created a powerful new government system that incorporated most of the ideas then current in Europe.
In addition to creating a government system, Mussolini also established laws to protect it from opposition. These laws included arrest warrants for those who criticized the government or its leaders. They could be held in prison without trial or let out on bail while their cases were heard in court. If convicted, the defendants would then be sent back to jail until after the next election when their cases could be appealed once more!
Mussolini used all of these methods to gain power over Italy, and they worked. By 1922, he had formed his own party and became prime minister. Under his leadership, Italy moved away from parliamentary politics and toward one-party rule.
During World Fight I, Benito Mussolini and other radicals founded a political club (known as a "fascista") to support the war against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Around 1921, fascists began to merge with mainstream conservatives, greatly increasing their membership. In 1922, they succeeded in having themselves declared a regular political party: the National Fascist Party (PNF).
The PNF promoted an aggressive foreign policy aimed at extending fascist ideology to all of Italy. In order to achieve this goal, it was necessary for the party to become strong enough to influence government policy. The Pope had great power over the Catholic Church, so Mussolini decided to get help from that quarter. In October 1925, he met with Pope Paul VI in Milan, where they signed a concordat (an agreement) that provided some protection for Catholics within fascist Italy. The Pope also granted Mussolini's request that Italian be made the official language of the church in Italy.
In addition to these achievements, Mussolini secured his position by having members appointed to key positions by him. These appointees would not challenge his authority because they needed his approval to advance up the ladder of success. By using this method, Mussolini created a single-party state where opposition parties could not operate freely.
Mussolini's aggressive foreign policy led to many disputes with other countries, most notably with France, which controlled part of Ethiopia.
Fascism emerged in Europe following World War I, when many people desired national unity and strong leadership. Benito Mussolini utilized his magnetism to construct a formidable fascist regime in Italy. Mussolini founded the first fascist administration, which was quickly followed by others, including Nazi Germany. These regimes shared many similar beliefs, including racism, nationalism, and antisemitism.
During this time, other European countries also developed forms of government based on fascist ideology. France and Spain had their own versions of fascism that were called "national socialism" and "national communism," respectively.
In Europe, fascism was considered a dangerous threat until its defeat in World War II. However, it has since become a popular term for describing violent movements today.
The fall of Mussolini's government in 1945 led to a power struggle between different factions within Italian society. The liberal democratic government under Prime Minister Winston Churchill wanted to try Mussolini for war crimes, but the public felt differently. They believed that punishing him would be unfair because he had only done what other leaders had done before him. Therefore, he did not have to be punished for something he had no control over. Instead, he was given a hero's welcome when he returned home.
After these events, no major fascist movements emerged in Europe. However, there have been several cases of people adopting more conservative views than they used to in order to attract attention or make money.
Following World War I, Fascism was formed in Italy, and other fascist movements influenced by Italian Fascism arose across Europe. In Germany, the Nazi Party (known as "the Nazis") became the first fascist movement to achieve national status when they took power in 1933.
Fascism is a political ideology that focuses on the unification of its country through nationalism and leads to the establishment of a totalitarian government led by one supreme leader.
It should be noted that not all countries with fascist governments are defined as such by scholars. Instead, they describe these regimes as "fascistic". However, many mainstream historians do classify these regimes as fascist because of their similarities with European fascism. They include Italy under Benito Mussolini, Spain under Francisco Franco, Portugal under António de Oliveira Salazar, and Germany under Adolf Hitler.
Countries like China and India that have strong leaders who want to unite their country with little concern for human rights violations may seem unlikeable, but because they're not considered fascist regimes, they don't get labeled as such by historians.
Additionally, there were two fascist regimes in the United States.
Other fascists used violence to establish their own governments: Hitler's Nazis and the Italian army officer Roberto Mussolini (Benito's son) have been accused of murdering hundreds of civilians during their reigns.
After Mussolini was forced out of office in 1945, he continued to influence Italian politics through his newspaper "Il Popolo D'Italia". In 1992, Mussolini was found guilty of genocide for his role in the extermination of Italians with mental disabilities. He died four years later at the age of 97.
In Germany, Hitler rose to power in 1933. Under his rule, many political opponents were murdered or exiled. His "National Socialism" ideology attracted many Germans who wanted to return to traditional values. After losing the war, Hitler maintained control over Germany through co-opting other powerful figureheads into forming a dictatorship. He managed to escape trial by suicide.
Other countries where fascism has taken hold include India, Indonesia, Israel, and Japan. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is considered the most influential modern day politician of both the fascist movement and the neoconservative movement. He has been criticized for using extreme rhetoric to defend Israel at the United Nations.