Neville Chamberlain, Minister Daladier met with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in London on April 28 and 29, 1938, to examine the issue. They agreed that Czechoslovakia could not survive outside of Europe and that war was therefore inevitable. Chamberlain returned to Prague on May 1 with a peace agreement known as the "Munich Agreement." The agreement allowed Germany to annex part of Czechoslovakia's territory but guaranteed the country's independence. Chamberlain believed this would appease Hitler and prevent World War III.
Chamberlain was wrong. In September 1938, Germany annexed the rest of Czechoslovakia, leaving it free only under Soviet control. And in March 1939, Germany again attacked Poland, this time resulting in another war between Germany and France/Britain. This time, Poland was defeated within six weeks and its government fled westward, taking up residence in Great Britain. Churchill became the prime minister in May 1940 but was replaced by Chamberlain after the French failed to stop the German invasion. Chamberlain's term ended in May 1940 but he continued as head of state until he died in November 1974.
Churchill had become prime minister in 1940 but he didn't want the job.
FRS Arthur Neville Chamberlain Arthur Neville Chamberlain FRS (/'[email protected]/; 18 March 1869–9 November 1940) was a Conservative Party politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 until May 1940. He is best known for his role in dealing with Germany during the opening phase of World War II.
Chamberlain was elected MP for Buckingham at a by-election on 3 December 1896, after the death of his father, Benjamin Chamberlain. He then won the seat back at the 1900 general election and remained its representative until his retirement at the 1945 general election. He returned to Parliament in 1910 when he was chosen to replace Walter Long as MP for Braintree. The two-year term ended in January 1912 but Chamberlain did not stand again. He was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in Herbert Henry Asquith's government in April 1916 and retained this post under David Lloyd George and Bonar Law.
As Chancellor, Chamberlain had responsibility for economic affairs but no vote on legislation. After Labour's victory in the 1929 general election, Chamberlain moved quickly to form a government and was invited by Ramsay MacDonald to be Britain's prime minister. However, when MacDonald failed to obtain a vote of confidence from the House of Commons, his government fell and Chamberlain returned to the backbenches.
After completing a peace treaty with Nazi Germany, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was greeted with a raucous welcome home on September 30, 1938. As the clock ticked down to the deadline, the clouds of war billowed in the British capital....
Chamberlain advocated a four-power summit to prevent war. On September 29, Hitler and Chamberlain met with French Prime Minister Edouard Daladier and Italian ruler Benito Mussolini in Munich. The Czechs and Slovaks were not consulted. At the meeting, which lasted more than three hours, the other three powers agreed to respect Germany's borders before they became effective on October 31, 1938.
After the Munich Agreement, Hitler went back on his word and began to expand German territory. In March 1939, he annexed the rest of Czechoslovakia.
Chamberlain resigned as prime minister the next month. He was replaced by Lord Halifax who had been serving as ambassador to France. However, when Germany invaded Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany. The conflict came to be known as World War II.
Halifax wanted a peace deal but Hitler would not agree to this so there was no hope for peace during Halilxad's time as prime minister.
Mussolini helped Hitler invade Poland but then turned against him. In April 1940, he attacked France, starting the Italian campaign. By July, all of Italy except for Sardinia had been taken from Yugoslavia. In May 1941, Mussolini declared war on America, setting up an unlikely alliance between Hitler and Roosevelt.
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|British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain after landing at Heston Aerodrome following his meeting with Adolf Hitler|
|Signed||30 September 1938|
|Parties||United Kingdom Nazi Germany French Third Republic Kingdom of Italy|
During the Munich Crisis of 1938, when Hitler threatened to attack Czechoslovakia, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain traveled to Nazi Germany three times in an attempt to prevent war. He was greeted by the Foreign Secretary and the Minister of War before speaking to the assembled audience and journalists. After these meetings, he returned home without having achieved his goal.
Chamberlain's trips to Germany were a significant factor in bringing about World War II. Historians agree that if Chamberlain had not gone to Germany, Britain would have mustered up the courage to refuse Hitler's demands rather than giving in to him. However, many people view his trips as a failure because he didn't stop the war but instead helped it begin.
After Chamberlain's third trip to Germany in September 1938, no further negotiations took place and on 1 October, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
Although Chamberlain wanted to keep peace with Germany, the Nazis refused to talk to him unless he changed his policy of "appeasement" by offering them concessions. This way, they could continue to make threats against other countries while building up their military strength.
The only thing Chamberlain managed to achieve during his visits to Germany was to give Hitler an excuse to invade Czechoslovakia. Once this invasion took place, Britain and France quickly joined forces with Poland against Germany, showing that Chamberlain had failed to prevent World War III after all.
Minister Neville Chamberlain In 1938, German Chancellor Adolf Hitler (left) and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (third from left) met in Munich, Germany, just before signing the Munich Agreement. The agreement allowed Germany to annex part of Czechoslovakia.
The Munich Treaty (from left to right) Neville Chamberlain, Edouard Daladier, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Count Galeazzo Ciano met at Munich in September 1938. PHotos.com/Thinkstock Encyclopaedia Britannica Editors Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History, most recently amended and updated this article. Please feel free to make further suggestions on our blog. All submissions will be considered for inclusion.
Munich was a peaceful settlement of disputes between Germany and Czechoslovakia. The treaty was negotiated by British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French Premier Édouard Daladier. It was signed on Sept. 30, 1938, just over a month after Hitler took control of both countries.
Chamberlain had hoped that the agreement would bring an end to the turmoil in central Europe. But just three months later, World War II broke out.
Hitler used the treaty as justification for taking over the rest of Czechoslovakia. In March 1939, he ordered his army into action against Poland, starting what would become known as World War II.
Daladier lost his seat in parliament two years later in the 1940 general election. He died in October 1942 while still serving as prime minister.