A hunter-gatherer, often known as a forager, is anybody who subsists largely on wild foods. All peoples were hunter-gatherers until around 12,000 to 11,000 years ago, when agriculture and animal domestication started in southwest Asia and Mesoamerica. Since then, most humans have been farmers or herder-farmers.
Hunter-gatherers live primarily off the land, capturing animals and fish with their bare hands or using simple tools, and gathering fruits, nuts, seeds, bulbs, herbs, and other plant materials as they are available. Although they may also cultivate small areas of land, such as plots of earth for vegetables, most hunter-gatherers do not rely solely on farming. Rather, they supplement this food source with some hunting and fishing.
In modern society, we tend to think of hunters as people who go out into the wilderness and kill animals for food, but this is not always the case. Hunter-gatherers can be nomads who move from place to place looking for food, or they may stay in one location if there's enough food available. It all depends on what kind of lifestyle they want to lead.
Most hunter-gatherers are members of tribal societies. This means that they share responsibility for taking care of each other and will usually have a leader who decides what role each person will play within the community.
A hunter-gatherer is a person who lives in a community where most or all of their food is obtained via foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals). In most regions of the world, hunter-gatherers who did not shift were ousted or subjugated by agricultural or pastoralist communities after the development of agriculture. Hunter-gatherers are believed to have lived this way for approximately 10,000 years.
Hunter-gatherers are often described as "neolithic" or "pre-agricultural" people because they do not practice agriculture but instead collect natural resources from the environment to feed themselves. However, some modern foragers still obtain some foods by hunting and gathering, although it is not their primary source of nutrition. For example, some Aboriginal Australians rely heavily on hunting and fishing but also grow some of their own food.
In addition to foraging for food, hunter-gatherers also use what they find in the nature around them to make tools, weapons, and objects for personal adornment. They may trade with other groups for more advanced technologies or materials that they need or want. In general, hunter-gatherers live in small mobile societies that migrate to find new food sources and avoid being subsumed by more powerful neighbors.
Hunter-gatherers are known from about 30 countries across four continents (Africa, Australia, North America, and South America).
Hunting and gathering were the first and most successful adaptations of humans, comprising at least 90% of human history. Only in the past 10,000 years has agriculture emerged as a major source of food.
Hunter-gatherers are commonly believed to be pre-agricultural peoples who lived in small bands with mostly nomadic lifestyles. However many studies have shown that some primitive agriculturalists also foraged to supplement their crops. Some modern foragers still rely on hunting and gatherering even though they may have some form of agriculture available to them.
People usually assume that hunter-gathers are simpleminded individuals who know nothing about ecology or biology. In fact, accurate assessment of forager cognitive abilities shows that they had an advanced culture similar to our own before agriculture emerged. They used tools, made shelters, and possessed a rich knowledge of plant medicines and the environment. Some evidence suggests that ancient foragers participated in religious rituals and had a complex society.
Modern foragers tend to live in communities of around 150 people. They usually have limited access to metal tools and technology, and very few remain true "wildmen" or "wildwomen" today.
A hunter-gatherer is a person who lives in a community where the majority or all of their sustenance is obtained from foraging—collecting or gathering wild vegetation and chasing or killing wild animals. Contrary to popular belief, hunter-gatherers are typically well-fed rather than famished. They obtain most of their nutrients from natural sources instead of food stamps.
Modern hunter-gatherer societies include some indigenous peoples of Europe and Asia who survive by hunting and gathering wild plants and game. Although they may have access to agriculture, they usually don't grow it themselves because they need to protect their forests for survival. Some seminomadic tribes in Russia's Far East also rely on hunting and gathering.
Other modern hunter-gatherer societies include certain Native Americans (e.g., Algonquian, Iroquois), Australian aborigines, and Africans who live mainly off the land. They may collect small amounts of money by selling goods to farmers or villagers, but they usually don't use currency.
Scientists believe that our ancestors were primarily hunter-gatherers until about 10,000 years ago, when some people began to cultivate crops and others started using weapons made out of stone and wood. Since then, most humans have moved away from being solely dependent on foraging for their food and lived in communities with other people.
Hunter-gatherers are often viewed as living simple lives devoid of technology or civilization.
They just prefer to eat what grows nearby instead of farming it.
As their name suggests, they are both hunters and gatherers. Hunters to obtain food, gatherers because they don't want to be tied down to one location while hunting or gathering, want something to eat now and then, etc.
Hunter-gatherer is a term used by archaeologists to describe people who live this way today. It was first used by American archaeologist Lewis H. Morgan in 1877. He called these people "savages" because he believed that they were less developed than civilized peoples. Later on, other scholars came up with other names for these people, such as "foragers", "wildmen", "primalists", and "neolithic people".
Today, some modern foragers choose to live exclusively as hunter-gathers. While some do this as a choice, most do not have any choice in the matter because there aren't any jobs available for farmers in today's world.
Paleolithic humans were known as hunter-gatherers because hunting and gathering were their only ways of acquiring food. They did not farm crops and raise livestock, as we do today. Crops and livestock came about much later in human history.
Hunter-gatherers lived in societies where all members shared the workload of providing food. The males tended to the hunting part of this process, while the females worked on growing crops together with other women or searching for wild plants to eat. Children took care of the younger ones while the older ones helped out with the work.
Modern researchers often call ancient humans that didn't depend on hunting and gathering "foragers" to distinguish them from farmers who produce their own food. "Forager-farmers" is a term used by some archaeologists to describe ancient people who kept animals for milk and meat and also grew small amounts of corn or other plant products for personal use.
However, foragers is a broad category that includes many different types of cultures with different lifestyles and time periods. There were certain times when it made sense for individuals or groups to hunt and gather, but there were also times when farming was more effective or easier to do.
Hunter-gatherer. /anthropol/adjective. (of a community, lifestyle, etc.) subsisting on hunting animals and collecting vegetation. Noun. (of persons) living in this manner.
The term "hunter-gatherer" was coined by archaeologists to describe ancient people who lived in villages and made their livelihood by hunting and gathering food. They used tools such as spears, knives, and traps to kill animals and collect fruits, nuts, and seeds. Hunter-gatherers did not plant crops and therefore could not feed themselves during times of drought or other disasters that might destroy their crops. Instead, they hunted or fished to keep alive until the next harvest season.
Modern people who live in rural areas and make their living mainly through hunting and gathering are known as hunter-gatherers. They may use weapons to kill animals for food, but they also often collect fruits, nuts, and seeds as well as catch small animals with their hands. Many cultures around the world include some members who continue to live as hunter-gatherers even after going to school and finding other jobs. For example, in America's Amazonian region, there are many tribes who have never seen a car or machine gun who still live as hunter-gatherers.